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IL-4 Inhibits Osteoclast Formation through a Direct Action on Osteoclast Precursors via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ1
Amy C. Bendixen, Nirupama K. Shevde, Krista M. Dienger, Timothy M. Willson, Colin D. Funk and J. Wesley Pike
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 98, No. 5 (Feb. 27, 2001), pp. 2443-2448
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3055075
Page Count: 6
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IL-4 is a pleiotropic immune cytokine secreted by activated TH2 cells that inhibits bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo. The cellular targets of IL-4 action as well as its intracellular mechanism of action remain to be determined. We show here that IL-4 inhibits receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation through an action on osteoclast precursors that is independent of stromal cells. Interestingly, this inhibitory effect can be mimicked by both natural as well as synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ1 (PPARγ1) ligands and can be blocked by the irreversible PPARγ antagonist GW 9662. These findings suggest that the actions of IL-4 on osteoclast differentiation are mediated by PPARγ1, an interpretation strengthened by the observation that IL-4 can activate a PPARγ1-sensitive luciferase reporter gene in RAW264.7 cells. We also show that inhibitors of enzymes such as 12/15-lipoxygenase and the cyclooxygenases that produce known PPARγ1 ligands do not abrogate the IL-4 effect. These findings, together with the observation that bone marrow cells from 12/15-lipoxygenase-deficient mice retain sensitivity to IL-4, suggest that the cytokine may induce novel PPARγ1 ligands. Our results reveal that PPARγ1 plays an important role in the suppression of osteoclast formation by IL-4 and may explain the beneficial effects of the thiazolidinedione class of PPARγ1 ligands on bone loss in diabetic patients.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2001 National Academy of Sciences