Access

You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:

login

Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

Application of Ecological Criteria in Selecting Marine Reserves and Developing Reserve Networks

Callum M. Roberts, George Branch, Rodrigo H. Bustamante, Juan Carlos Castilla, Jenifer Dugan, Benjamin S. Halpern, Kevin D. Lafferty, Heather Leslie, Jane Lubchenco, Deborah McArdle, Mary Ruckelshaus and Robert R. Warner
Ecological Applications
Vol. 13, No. 1, Supplement: The Science of Marine Reserves (Feb., 2003), pp. S215-S228
Published by: Wiley
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3100009
Page Count: 14
  • Download ($42.00)
  • Subscribe ($19.50)
  • Cite this Item
Application of Ecological Criteria in Selecting Marine Reserves and Developing Reserve Networks
Preview not available

Abstract

Marine reserves are being established worldwide in response to a growing recognition of the conservation crisis that is building in the oceans. However, designation of reserves has been largely opportunistic, or protective measures have been implemented (often overlapping and sometimes in conflict) by different entities seeking to achieve different ends. This has created confusion among both users and enforcers, and the proliferation of different measures provides a false sense of protection where little is offered. This paper sets out a procedure grounded in current understanding of ecological processes, that allows the evaluation and selection of reserve sites in order to develop functional, interconnected networks of fully protected reserves that will fulfill multiple objectives. By fully protected we mean permanently closed to fishing and other resource extraction. We provide a framework that unifies the central aims of conservation and fishery management, while also meeting other human needs such as the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., maintenance of coastal water quality, shoreline protection, and recreational opportunities). In our scheme, candidate sites for reserves are evaluated against 12 criteria focused toward sustaining the biological integrity and productivity of marine systems at both local and regional scales. While a limited number of sites will be indispensable in a network, many will be of similar value as reserves, allowing the design of numerous alternative, biologically adequate networks. Devising multiple network designs will help ensure that ecological functionality is preserved throughout the socioeconomic evaluation process. Too often, socioeconomic criteria have dominated the process of reserve selection, potentially undermining their efficacy. We argue that application of biological criteria must precede and inform socioeconomic evaluation, since maintenance of ecosystem functioning is essential for meeting all of the goals for reserves. It is critical that stakeholders are fully involved throughout this process. Application of the proposed criteria will lead to networks whose multifunctionality will help unite the objectives of different management entities, so accelerating progress toward improved stewardship of the oceans.

Page Thumbnails

  • Thumbnail: Page 
S215
    S215
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S216
    S216
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S217
    S217
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S218
    S218
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S219
    S219
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S220
    S220
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S221
    S221
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S222
    S222
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S223
    S223
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S224
    S224
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S225
    S225
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S226
    S226
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S227
    S227
  • Thumbnail: Page 
S228
    S228