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An Introduction to the History of Modern Persian Sufism, Part II: A Socio-Cultural Profile of Sufism, from the Dhahabī Revival to the Present Day

Leonard Lewisohn
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
Vol. 62, No. 1 (1999), pp. 36-59
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3107388
Page Count: 24
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An Introduction to the History of Modern Persian Sufism, Part II: A Socio-Cultural Profile of Sufism, from the Dhahabī Revival to the Present Day
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Abstract

The first part of this article (BSOAS, 61/3, 1998, 437-64) dealt with the revival and survival of the various branches of the Niʿmatullāhī order throughout the turbulent political upheavals of early nineteenth- and late twentieth-century Iran. Part II explores the revival of the Dhahabiyya, the second most important Sufi order in Persia, first begun by Quṭb al-Dīn Nayrīzī in the late eighteenth century. This is followed by a summary of the literary and social history of this ṭarīqa during the last two centuries, with some discussion of modern developments in the so-called Islamic Republic under its current master Dr Abū'l-Ḣamīd Ganjaviyān.

Notes and References

This item contains 265 references.

[Footnotes]
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  • 2
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  • 3
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    • Khāvarī, however, Dhahabiyya, 323, n. 4
  • 4
    This reference contains 2 citations:
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  • 5
    Istakhrī, Usūl-i Tasawwuf (Tehran, 1338/1959), 434-39
  • 6
    Khāvarī, Dhahabiyya, 551-2
  • 7
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Zayn al-'Abidīn Shirvānī had pointed out (Riyāḍ al-siyāha, 655)
    • Mīrzā Bābā Shīrāzī in his poem, Tadhkirat al-awliyā
    • Istakhrī, Usūl, 445
  • 8
    Istakhrī, Usūl, 443
  • 9
    Shiraz, n.d.
  • 10
    Tabriz: n.d.
  • 11
    Khāvarī, Dhahabiyya, 330
  • 12
    Istakhrī, Usūl, 463-5
  • 13
    Ma'sūm 'Alī Shāh Shīrāzī, Ṭarā'iq al-haqā'iq, III, 220
  • 14
    Khāvarī, Dhahabiyya, 337
  • 15
    Shiraz: 1335/1956
  • 16
    Khāvarī, Dhahabiyya, 567
  • 17
    ibid., 571
  • 18
    ibid., 338-40
  • 19
    ibid., 360
  • 20
    ibid., 352ff.
  • 21
    ibid., 362
  • 22
    Amanat, Resurrection and renewal, 76
  • 23
    Shīrāzī, Ṭarā'iq, III, 219
  • 24
    Ahwaz, 1335/1956
  • 25
    Ahwaz, 1332/1953
  • 26
    Riyāḍ al-'ārifin., 436-7
  • 27
    Khāvarī, Dhahabiyya, 380
  • 28
    Ṭarā'iq, III, 456
  • 29
    A memoir of the Rev. Henry Martyn, B.D. (London, 1820), 394
  • 30
    ibid., 408-9
  • 31
    Khāvarī, Dhahabiyya, 374
  • 32
    Shiraz: n.d.
  • 33
    Composed in 1282/1865, and published in Tabriz. 1310/1931
  • 34
    Gramlich, Die schiitischen Derwischorden Persiens, I, 20
  • 35
    In a lithographed edition by Majd al-Ashraf, his son, in 1301/1883
  • 36
    This reference contains 2 citations:
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  • 37
    Gramlich, Derwischorden, I, 21
  • 38
    Persian Shams al-haqīqat (Tehran, 1341/1962)
  • 39
    Tabriz: 1334/1955
  • 40
    Muhammad Lāhījī, Mafātīh al-i'jāz fī sharh-i Gulshan-i rāz, ed. Muhammad Riḍā Barzgār Khāliqī and 'Iffat Karbāsī (Tehran, 1371/1992)
  • 41
    Muhammad Rahīm Nusrat al-Mulk Mākū'ī, Maqālāt-i Ḥaḍrat-i Parvīzī (Tabriz, 1338/1959)
  • 42
    Memoir ... Henry Martyn, 409
  • 43
    Khāvarī, Dhahabiyya, 380
  • 44
    ibid., 387-88
  • 45
    loc. cit.
  • 46
    This reference contains 4 citations:
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  • 47
    Ṭarā'iq, III, 456-7
  • 48
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Gramlich, Derwischorden, I, 21-2
    • Istakhrī, Usūl, 526
  • 49
    Istakhrī, Usūl, 528
  • 50
    Khāvarī, Dhahabiyya, 395-6
  • 51
    ibid., 394
  • 52
    This reference contains 2 citations:
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    • Istakhrī, Usūl, 531
  • 53
    EIr., VI, 'Constitutional Revolution', 163-216
  • 54
    Tabriz: n.p., 1320/1902
  • 55
    Khāvarī, Dhahabiyya, 696
  • 56
    ibid., 687-8
  • 57
    This reference contains 3 citations:
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  • 58
    This reference contains 2 citations:
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    • ibid., 122
  • 60
    Tabriz, 1320/1902
  • 61
    Gramlich, Derwischorden, I, 22-3
  • 62
    Dīwān-i qasā'id wa ghazaliyyāt-i Gumnām (Tehran, 1368)
  • 63
    Derwischorden, I, 23
  • 64
    This reference contains 2 citations:
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    • Sharh-i Gulshan-i rāz of U'jūba
  • 65
    Sharh-i Gulshan-i rāz of U'jūba, 466-7
  • 66
    Wasiyat-nāma, 466-7
  • 67
    Risāla-i tanbīhiyya, 17
  • 68
    ibid., 20
  • 69
    ibid., 21
  • 70
    ibid., 22
  • 71
    ibid., 24
  • 72
    This reference contains 2 citations:
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    • Muhammad Rahim Khān Nusrat-Mākū'ī, Majmū'a -yi hāḍir (Tabrīz, 1342/1963), 85-121
  • 73
    Majmū'a-yi hāḍir, 91
  • 74
    ibid., 93
  • 75
    ibid., 103
  • 76
    ibid., 104
  • 77
    ibid., 105
  • 78
    Muhammad Ḥasan Ruknzada-yi Ādamiyyat, Dānishmandān va sukhansarāyān-i Fars (Tehran, 1337/1959), III, 264-5
  • 79
    Personal communication from Shaykh Bāqirī (Dhahabī Khānaqāh, Tehran), December 1996
  • 80
    Gramlich, Derwischorden, I, p. 23
  • 81
    Personal communication from Shaykh Bāqirī, Dhahabī Khānaqāh, December 1996
  • 82
    ibid.
  • 83
    This reference contains 2 citations:
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  • 84
    Istakhrī, Usūl, 550-1
  • 85
    This reference contains 2 citations:
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  • 86
    Riḍā's Sab' al-mithānī
  • 87
    Gramlich, Derwischorden, I, 22-4
  • 89
    H. Algar, 'Ḏahabīya,' EIr, VI, 580
  • 90
    Khāvarī, Dhahabiyya, 63ff.
  • 91
    Hadā'iq al-siyāhat, 251
  • 92
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Dhahabiyya, 369
    • Shirvānī's derision of the Dhahabiyya was noted in the preceding footnote
  • 93
    This reference contains 2 citations:
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    • Henry Corbin, Histoire de la philosophie islamique, 435-36
  • 94
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Gramlich, Derwischorden, II
    • III
  • 95
    ibid
  • 96
    History, II, 299
  • 97
    Tihrān-i qadīm (Tehran, 1371/1992), II, 287
  • 98
    S. Anderson, 'Dervish orders of Constantinople', The Moslem World, 12/1, 1922, 53-61
  • 99
    Derwischorden, I, 89-90
  • 100
    Pourjavady and Wilson, Kings of love, 252
  • 101
    Personal communication from Dr Ganjaviyān, 16 January 1997
  • 102
    Personal communication from Shaykh Bāqirī, Dhahabī Khānaqāh, December 1996
  • 103
    'Soufisme et déclin culturel' in Classicisme et déclin culturel dans l'histoire de l'Islam (Actes du Symposium Internationale d'Histoire de la Civilisation Musulmane, organisé par R. Brunschvig and G. E. Von Grunebaum, Bordeaux, 1957)
  • 104
    London, 1972
  • 105
    ibid., 122
  • 106
    Oxford, 1973
  • 107
    ibid., 70
  • 108
    ibid., 258
  • 109
    The venture of Islam (Chicago, 1974), II, 455-67
  • 110
    ibid., II, 456
  • 111
    ibid., III, 394
  • 112
    Carl Ernst, 'Chishti meditation practices of the late Mughal period', in D. O. Morgan and L. Lewisohn (ed.), Late classical Persianate Sufism (1999, forthcoming)
  • 113
    Ta'rīkh-i adabiyāt-i Īrān, vol. V, part 1 (Tehran, n.d.), 220
  • 114
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • The meaning and end of religion (Minneapolis, 1991). defines this tradition as 'the historical construct, in continuous and continuing construction, of those who participate in [a religion]' (p. 165)
    • p. 163
    • p. 168
    • p. 169
    • p. 318
  • 15
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • The meaning and end of religion, 186
    • p. 188
    • loc. cit.
    • p. 189
  • 116
    This reference contains 3 citations:
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    • idem, Classical Persian Sufism xv-xxix
    • Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical dimensions of Islam (Chapel Hill, 1975), 98-108
  • 117
    A. Anwār points out ('Anjomān-e Okowwat', EIr, II, 89)
  • 118
    Ja'far Shahrī, Ta'rīkh-i ijtimā'ī-yi Tihrān dar qarn-i sīzdahum (Tehran, 1369/1990), VI, 419
  • 119
    Derwischorden, II, 146
  • 120
    F. de Jong, s.v. 'Ḳuṭb,' EI, 2nd ed., v, 545
  • 121
    W. M. Miller, 'Shi'ah mysticism: the Sufis of Gunābād', The Moslem World, 13, 1933, 344
  • 122
    M. Miras, Le méthode spirituelle, 37, 153, 204, and esp. p. 212
  • 123
    Amanat, Resurrection, 73-5
  • 124
    Mākū'ī, Majmū'a-yi hāḍir, 56-7.
  • 125
    This reference contains 3 citations:
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    • Dīwān (Tehran, n.d.), 29 Safī 'Alī Shāh
    • p. 30
  • 126
    This reference contains 5 citations:
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    This reference contains 2 citations:
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    • idem, in The encyclopedia of religion, s.v. 'Religious pluralism', 332
  • 129
    Jean Aubin, 'La propriété fonciére en Azerbayjan sous les Mongols', in Le Monde iranien et l'Islam, IV, 1976-77, 128
  • 130
    The venture of Islam, II, 112
  • 131
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • ibid., II 217
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    • n. 46 above
    • Mahmūd Shabistarī (d. c. 1340), to cite but one example from a myriad, devotes an entire passage of his Sufi masterpiece Gulshan-i rāz
    • Leonard Lewisohn, Beyond faith and infidelity (London, 1995), 2-4
  • 132
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Zarrīnkūb, Dunbāla, 232-6
    • the essays by S. Quinn and T. Graham on the Ni'matullāhī Order in Morgan and Lewisohn (ed.), Late classical Persianate Sufism
  • 133
    Zarrīnkūb, Dunbāla, 242
  • 134
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Roger Savory, Iran Under the Safavids, (Cambridge, 1980), 25
    • EI, 2nd ed., s.v. nass
  • 135
    Part 1 of this article BSOAS, 61/3, 1998, section II, i
  • 136
    ibid., Part II, section IV
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    This reference contains 2 citations:
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  • 138
    History, II, 279
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    This reference contains 2 citations:
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    • Morgan and Lewisohn (ed.), Late classical Persianate Sufism, passim
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    'Sayyid 'Alī Hamadānī and Kubrawī hagiographical traditions', in L. Lewisohn (ed.), The legacy of mediaeval Persian Sufism, 139
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    This reference contains 2 citations:
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  • 142
    Feldman, 'Mysticism, didacticism and authority in the liturgical poetry of the Halvetî dervishes of Istanbul', Edebiyât, N.S., 4/2, 1993, 263
  • 143
    Dhahabiyya, 685
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    This reference contains 4 citations:
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    This reference contains 3 citations:
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    • E. G. Browne, A history of Persian literature, IV
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  • 146
    Juan Cole, 'Invisible occidentalism: eighteenth-century Indo-Per'sian constructions of the West', Iranian Studies, 25/3-4, 1992, 3-16
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    This reference contains 3 citations:
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    • Nuray Mert, 'Children of a "defeated civilization ": the sad face of Westernization in Turkey', in Turkey: the Pendulum Swings Back (London, Islamic World Report, I, 3, 1996), 69-76
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    • Muhammad 'Alī Ḥājjī Pirzāda, whose fascinating account of his voyages throughout Europe in the 1880s has been edited by Ḥāfiẓ Farmān-Farmā'iyān: Safar-nāma-yi Ḥājjī Pīrzāda (Tehran, 1342/1963)
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    Weber and Islam: a critical study (London, 1974), 145
  • 150
    his Sūfīgarī (Tehran, 1322/1943)
  • 151
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  • 152
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  • 154
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  • 155
    his Ḥaqīqat-i 'irfān (Tehran, 2nd ed., n.d.), which reproduces texts, pp. 161-2
  • 156
    Yann Richard, Shi'ite Islam, 54
  • 157
    H. E. Chehabi, Iranian politics and religious modernism, 83
  • 158
    ibid., 84
  • 159
    M. C. Bateson et al., 'Safā-yi Bāṭin: a study of a set of Iranian ideal character types', in L. C. Brown and N. Itzkowitz, ed., Psychological dimensions of Near Eastern studies (Princeton, 1977), 257-73
  • 160
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  • 161
    Javād Mujabī, 'Dukkān-i 'irfān-furūshī rā bibandīd', Iṭṭilā 'āt, 3 Khurdad 1352/1973, no. 14107, p. 17
  • 162
    Dāryūsh Humāyūnī's remarks, 'Imr-uz zamān-i az madrasa bih khānaqāh raftan nīst', Nimraz, year 8, no. 390, Jum'a 11 Abān, 1375/1996, 15
  • 163
    Riḍā Ḥaqqj-u's pro-Sufi riposte to Humāyūnī, 'Ham madrasa wa ham khānaqāh', Nīmrūz, year 8, no. 393, Jum'a 2 Adhar, 1375/1996, 33
  • 164
    Dīwān-i Ḥāfiẓ, ed. P. Nātil-Khānlarī (Tehran, 1359/1990), 288
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