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Marine Influence on the Distribution of Xanthoria parietina, X. elegans, and X. ulophyllodes on Marble Gravestones in Maine
James W. Hinds
Vol. 98, No. 3 (Autumn, 1995), pp. 402-410
Published by: American Bryological and Lichenological Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3243380
Page Count: 9
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The detailed geographical distribution of Xanthoria parietina, X. elegans, and X. ulophyllodes was studied quantitatively, with particular attention to distances to the ocean. The number of marble gravestones positive for each species out of the number sampled (frequency) was determined at 138 sites throughout most of Maine. Xanthoria parietina and X. elegans are more common close to the ocean and X. ulophyllodes is more common away from the ocean. Unlike X. elegans, X. parietina is restricted to sites fairly near the ocean; a contour map of the relative abundance of X. parietina shows that the 1% frequency contour line is reached approximately 35 km from the ocean in southwestern Maine and 85 to 125 km from the ocean in eastern Maine. The frequency of X. parietina on gravestones is also correlated with local habitats: higher frequencies than expected occur in partially wooded cemeteries surrounded by open habitats while lower frequencies than expected occur in open cemeteries surrounded by woods. Stepwise multiple regressions of X. parientina frequency as a function of distance to the ocean measured at 17 different directions, from 70° to 230°, showed significant regressions in 2 directions: southwesterly (highest t-ratio) and easterly. It is suggested that the growth of X. parientina depends on the inland transport of marine elements, both wet deposition of salts during easterly storms and dry deposition of aerosols from southwesterly winds of the warmer months, with dry deposition being the dominant influence.
The Bryologist © 1995 American Bryological and Lichenological Society