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Development of Mason E. Hale's List of Epithets in the Parmelioid Genera (Lichen-Forming Ascomycotina): A Bibliographic Review

Paula T. DePriest
The Bryologist
Vol. 102, No. 3 (Autumn, 1999), pp. 442-461
DOI: 10.2307/3244233
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3244233
Page Count: 20
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Development of Mason E. Hale's List of Epithets in the Parmelioid Genera (Lichen-Forming Ascomycotina): A Bibliographic Review
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Abstract

Mason E. Hale's "List of Epithets in the Parmelioid Genera" provides a comprehensive view of his classification scheme for Parmelia s. lat. and its numerous segregate genera. Over Hale's three-decade career, Parmelia Ach. went from a large, understudied genus, to a small genus with a constellation of more than 35 generic segregates, mostly erected by Hale and his close associates. A review of Hale's extensive bibliography suggests that his classification scheme was fixed largely by the mid-1960s when he first treated Parmelia and proposed a new infrageneric classification for its neotropical species. Over the next 25 years, Hale and his colleagues divided the genus into relatively small, homologous groups of species in two stages. In a first stage in the mid-1970s, Hale developed new character systems that supported his recognition of many of the Parmelia infrageneric taxa as seven segregate genera. In a second stage in the mid-1980's, he and his colleagues refined these genera and named many new genera in response to newly available collections from Africa and Australia. Although Hale's classification of the parmelioid lichens remains controversial, he introduced new ideas and new technologies to lichen taxonomy and systematics, especially the use of chemical characters and scanning electron microscope (SEM) examinations of the cortical structures.

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