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Analysis of Glutathione-Enhanced Differentiation by Microfilariae of Onchocerca lienalis (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) In vitro
R. J. Pollack, J. B. Lok and J. J. Donnelly
The Journal of Parasitology
Vol. 74, No. 3 (Jun., 1988), pp. 353-359
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3282037
Page Count: 7
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Reduced glutathione (GSH), but not its oxidized form (GSSG), stimulated development of Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae to the late first-larval stage in vitro. The degree and frequency of development was dose-related with a peak of activity at 15 mM, a concentration that is similar to known intracellular levels of GSH. To determine the mode(s) of action of this multifunctional compound, other reducing agents (L-cysteine, dithiothreitol), cysteine delivery agents (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid), cysteine analogues (S-methyl-L-cysteine, D-glucose-L-cysteine, cysteine ethyl ester), free-component amino acids of GSH (glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine), a specific metabolic inhibitor of γ-glutamyl synthetase (buthionine sulfoximine), and an inhibitor of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-glutamyl glutamic acid) were also tested at concentrations of 0.01-50 mM in this system. N-acetyl-L-cysteine at 1-5 mM and D-glucose-L-cysteine at 2.5-10 mM significantly enhanced development. In contrast to those worms maintained in GSH-supplemented medium, microfilariae exposed to GSH for only the first 24 hr showed no enhancement by day 7 in culture. Neither buthionine sulfoximine nor γ-glutamyl glutamic acid at 0.01-35 mM inhibited the effects of 15 mM GSH or 1 mM N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Results indicate that GSH or other cysteine analogues possessing a free sulfhydryl group must be present in the extranematodal environment to support microfilarial differentiation in vitro.
The Journal of Parasitology © 1988 The American Society of Parasitologists