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Molecular Differentiation and Phylogeny of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) Based on ND4 Gene Sequences of Mitochondrial DNA
Jie Liu, Ralph E. Berry and Michael S. Blouin
The Journal of Parasitology
Vol. 85, No. 4 (Aug., 1999), pp. 709-715
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3285747
Page Count: 7
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We determined partial ND4 gene sequences of mitochondrial DNA from 15 heterorhabditid nematode isolates, representing 5 species collected from different regions of the world, by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct-sequencing of PCR products. Aligned nucleotide as well as amino acid sequences were used to differentiate nematode species by comparing sequence divergence and to infer phylogeny of the nematodes by using maximum parsimony and likelihood methods. Robustness of our phylogenetic trees was checked by bootstrap tests. The 15 nematode isolates can be divided into 7 haplotypes based on DNA sequences. On a larger scale, the sequence divergence revealed 4 distinct groups corresponding to 4 described species. No sequence divergence was detected from 5 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora or between Heterorhabditis marelatus to Heterorhabditis hepialius. Our sequence data yielded phylogenetic trees with identical topologies when different tree-building methods were used. Most relationships were also confirmed by using amino acid sequences in maximum parsimony analysis. Our molecular phylogeny of Heterorhabditis species support an existing taxonomy that is based largely on morphology and the sequence divergence of the ND4 gene permits species identification.
The Journal of Parasitology © 1999 The American Society of Parasitologists