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Journal Article

Phylogenetics of Amaranthaceae Based on matK/trnK Sequence Data: Evidence from Parsimony, Likelihood, and Bayesian Analyses

Kai Müller and Thomas Borsch
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
Vol. 92, No. 1 (May, 2005), pp. 66-102
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3298649
Page Count: 37

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Topics: Pollen, Genera, Phylogenetics, Taxa, Evolution, Phylogeny, Parsimony, Botanical gardens, Systematics, Plants
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Phylogenetics of Amaranthaceae Based on matK/trnK Sequence Data: Evidence from Parsimony, Likelihood, and Bayesian Analyses
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Abstract

Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae together represent the most species-rich monophyletic group in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. So far, phylogenetic relationships between Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae have remained unclear. Previous morphological and molecular studies have indicated that most of the currently accepted infrafamilial taxa in Amaranthaceae do not reflect natural groups. With the aim to provide a robust phylogenetic framework for analyzing the evolution of pollen and other phenotypic characters within the family, we conducted maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses using chloroplast matK/trnK DNA sequence data. The Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae lineage was resolved as monophyletic, with Achatocarpaceae and Caryophyllaceae being successive sisters. Within the monophyletic Amaranthaceae, a basal grade of Bosea L. (Macaronesian islands, Cyprus, Himalaya), followed by Charpentiera Gaudich. (endemic to Hawaii and the Australian Ridge) receives high support. Celosieae appear as sister to Amaranthus L. + Chamissoa Kunth. While Celosieae were supported as natural, most other currently recognized infrafamiliar taxa were revealed to be para- or polyphyletic. Among former Aervinae, an Achyranthoid and an Aervoid clade were newly recovered. Pseudoplantago Suess., sharing some morphological features with Amaranthoideae, was found within Gomphrenoideae rather than being in a position linking both subfamilies. The evolution of morphological characters previously used for classification and of some pollen characters was analyzed based on the matK/trnK tree. The recently described metareticulate pollen architecture is reconstructed to have evolved once in the ancestor of a highly supported core Gomphrenoid clade that comprises the traditional Gomphrenoideae but excludes Iresine P. Browne. In contrast, the complex stellate pore ornamentation was reconstructed as having evolved at least twice in parallel. Unlike other morphological characters discussed in this paper, pollen characters in general represent morphological synapomorphies circumscribing many clades recovered with molecular data. In addition, the present paper provides a brief survey of the taxonomic history and the current state of research on systematics and evolution in Amaranthaceae.

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