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Reactivation of Developmental Programs: The cAMP-Response Element-Binding Protein Pathway Is Involved in Hydra Head Regeneration
Kostas Kaloulis, Simona Chera, Monika Hassel, Dominique Gauchat, Brigitte Galliot and Pierre Chambon
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 101, No. 8 (Feb. 24, 2004), pp. 2363-2368
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3371297
Page Count: 6
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Phosphorylation, Antibodies, Gene expression regulation, Cell nucleus, Vertebrates, Signals, Physiological regulation, Antiserum, Adults, Gene expression
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Hydra regenerate throughout their life. We previously described early modulations in cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) DNA-binding activity during regeneration. We now show that the Ser-67 residue located in the P-box is a target for post-translational regulation. The antihydra CREB antiserum detected CREB-positive nuclei distributed in endoderm and ectoderm, whereas the phosphoSer133-CREB antibody detected phospho-CREB-positive nuclei exclusively in endodermal cells. During early regeneration, we observed a dramatic increase in the number of phospho-CREB-positive nuclei in head-regenerating tips, exceeding 80% of the endodermal cells. We identified among CREB-binding kinases the p80 kinase, which showed an enhanced activity and a hyperphosphorylated status during head but not foot regeneration. According to biochemical and immunological evidence, this p80 kinase belongs to the Ribosomal protein S6 kinase family. Exposure to the U0126 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor inhibited head but not foot regeneration, abolished CREB phosphorylation and activation of the early gene HyBra1 in head-regenerating tips. These data support a role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ribosomal protein S6 kinase/CREB pathway in hydra head organizer activity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2004 National Academy of Sciences