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Molecular Changes in Neurons in Multiple Sclerosis: Altered Axonal Expression of Na v1.2 and Na v1.6 Sodium Channels and Na+/ Ca2+ Exchanger
Matthew J. Craner, Jia Newcombe, Joel A. Black, Caroline Hartle, M. Louise Cuzner and Stephen G. Waxman
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 101, No. 21 (May 25, 2004), pp. 8168-8173
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3372469
Page Count: 6
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Although voltage-gated sodium channels are known to be deployed along experimentally demyelinated axons, the molecular identities of the sodium channels expressed along axons in human demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) have not been determined. Here we demonstrate changes in the expression of sodium channels in demyelinated axons in MS, with Na v1.6 confined to nodes of Ranvier in controls but with diffuse distribution of Na v1.2 and Na v1.6 along extensive regions of demyelinated axons within acute MS plaques. Using triple-labeled fluorescent immunocytochemistry, we also show that Na v1.6, which is known to produce a persistent sodium current, and the Na+/ Ca2+ exchanger, which can be driven by persistent sodium current to import damaging levels of calcium into axons, are colocalized with β-amyloid precursor protein, a marker of axonal injury, in acute MS lesions. Our results demonstrate the molecular identities of the sodium channels expressed along demyelinated and degenerating axons in MS and suggest that coexpression of Na v1.6 and Na+/ Ca2+ exchanger is associated with axonal degeneration in MS.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2004 National Academy of Sciences