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Mutations in Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D That Prevent Cell Entry Via Nectins and Alter Cell Tropism

Sharmila Manoj, Cheryl R. Jogger, Dawn Myscofski, Miri Yoon and Patricia G. Spear
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 101, No. 34 (Aug. 24, 2004), pp. 12414-12421
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3372997
Page Count: 8
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Mutations in Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D That Prevent Cell Entry Via Nectins and Alter Cell Tropism
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Abstract

Glycoprotein D (gD) determines which cells can be infected by herpes simplex virus (HSV) by binding to one of the several cell surface receptors that can mediate HSV entry or cell fusion. These receptors include the herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), nectin-1, nectin-2, and sites in heparan sulfate generated by specific 3-O-sulfotransferases. The objective of the present study was to identify residues in gD that are critical for physical and functional interactions with nectin-1 and nectin-2. We found that double or triple amino acid substitutions at positions 215, 222, and 223 in gD caused marked reduction in gD binding to nectin-1 and a corresponding inability to function in cell fusion or entry of HSV via nectin-1 or nectin-2. These substitutions either enhanced or did not significantly inhibit functional interactions with HVEM and modified heparan sulfate. These and other results demonstrate that different domains of gD, with some overlap, are critical for functional interactions with each class of entry receptor. Viral entry assays, using gD mutants described here and previously, revealed that nectins are the principal entry receptors for selected human cell lines of neuronal and epithelial origin, whereas HVEM or nectins could be used to mediate entry into a T lymphocyte line. Because T cells and fibroblasts can be infected via HVEM, HSV strains carrying gD mutations that prevent entry via nectins may establish transient infections in humans, but perhaps not latent infections of neurons, and are therefore candidates for development of safe live virus vaccines and vaccine vectors.

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