Access

You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:

login

Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

Emission of Carcinogenic Components with Automobile Exhausts

Ulf Stenberg, Tomas Alsberg and Roger Westerholm
Environmental Health Perspectives
Vol. 47 (Jan., 1983), pp. 53-63
DOI: 10.2307/3429499
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3429499
Page Count: 11
  • Download PDF
  • Add to My Lists
  • Cite this Item
Emission of Carcinogenic Components with Automobile Exhausts
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.

Abstract

Different sampling methods for mutagenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are described. These methods involve either direct sampling of raw exhausts which prior to filtering are cooled in a condenser, or filter sampling of exhausts diluted in a tunnel. The relevance of gas-phase PAHs of samples from diluted exhausts is discussed; methods used are either adsorbents (XAD-2) or cryogenic condensation. The emission of benzo(a)pyrene and certain other PAHs is reported from vehicles using different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG, alcohols) or different emission control systems. The emission of some volatiles, such as benzene, ethylene and alkylnitrites, is also presented from different types of fuels used.

Notes and References

This item contains 46 references.

References
  • 1
    Clar, E.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York-London, 1968.
  • 2
    Schuetzle, D. Sampling of vehicle emissions for chemical analysis and biological testing. Environ. Health Perspect. 47: 65-80 (1983).
  • 3
    Anonymous. Ermittlung polyzyklischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe im Automobileabgas in Abhängigkeit von Motorkoncept und Fahrzustand, VW-report UB-II, 2-334, 62-10/75, Wolfsburg 1975.
  • 4
    Kotin, P., Falk, H. L., and Thomas, M. Aromatic hydrocar- bon II. Presence in the particulate phase of gasoline engine exhausts. Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup. Hyg.9: 164-177 (1954).
  • 5
    Mittler, S., and Nicholson, S. Carcinogenicity of atmos- pheric pollutants, Ind. Med. Surg.26: 135-138 (1957).
  • 6
    Stenburg, R. L., von Lehmden, D. J., and Hangebrauck, R. P. Sample collection techniques for combustion sources- benzopyrene determination. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J.22: 271-275 (1961).
  • 7
    Begeman, C. R., and Colucci, J. M. Apparatus for determin- ing the contribution of the automobile to the benzene-soluble organics in air. National Cancer Inst. Monograph, 9: 17-57 (1962).
  • 8
    Gross, G. P. Gasoline composition and vehicle gas polynu- clear aromatic content. CRC-APRAC project CAPE-6-68, July 30, 1972.
  • 9
    Hangebrauck, R. P., Lauch, R. P., and Meeker, J. E. Emissions of polynuclear hydrocarbons from automobiles and trucks. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J.1: 47-56 (1966).
  • 10
    Grimmer, G., Hildebrandt, A., and Bohnke, H. Sampling and analytics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in auto- mobile exhaust gas: 1. Optimization of the collecting arrange- ments. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg., I. Abt.B158: 22-34 (1973).
  • 11
    Anonymous. Daimler Benz Report no EB 740366, Stuttgart, Sept. 1974.
  • 12
    Grimmer, G., and Hildebrandt, A. Assessment of the contribution of passenger cars to air pollution by carcino- genic polycyclic hydrocarbons, Zbl. Bakt. Hyg., I. Abt. B161: 104-124 (1975).
  • 13
    Kraft, J., and Lies, K. H. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhausts of gasoline and diesel vehicles. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1981, paper no. 810082.
  • 14
    Anonymous. Emission of PAH, reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons and aldehydes from current production cars, Fiat 1980, Accordo di Ricerca Feemas 13/80.
  • 15
    Handa, T., Yamamura, T., Kato, Y., Saito, S., and Ishii, T. Determination of predominant factors of PAH emissions from gasoline engine vehicles in ordinary city service. J. Japan. Soc. Air Pollut.14: 464-473 (1979).
  • 16
    Handa, T., Yamamura, T., Kato, Y., Saito, S., and Ishii, T. The effect of automotive operating conditions on polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions. J. Japan Soc. Air Pollut. 14: 334-339 (1979).
  • 17
    Chipman, J. C., and Massey, M. T. Proportional sampling system for the collection of an integrated auto exhaust gas sample. J. Air Pollution Control Assoc.10: 60-61 (1960).
  • 18
    Spindt, R. S.First Annual Report on Polynuclear Aromatic Content of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Exhausts Gases. Gulf Research and Development Co., CAPE-24-72, July 1974.
  • 19
    Stenberg, U., Alsberg, T., and Bertilsson, B. M. A compar- ison of the emission of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from automobiles using gasoline or a methanol/gasoline blend. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1981, Paper no. 810441.
  • 20
    Stenberg, U. The emission of polynuclear aromatic hydro- carbons from gasoline powered vehicles. Report to the Swedish EPA, February 1, 1979.
  • 21
    Habbi, K. Characterization of particulate lead and vehicle exhausts-experimental techniques. Environ. Sci. Technol. 4: 239-259 (1970).
  • 22
    Habbi, K. Characterization of particulate matter in vehicle exhausts. Environ. Sci. Technol.7: 223-234 (1973).
  • 23
    Newhall, H. K., Jentoft, R. E., and Ballinger, P. R., The effect of unleaded fuel composition on polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1981 paper no. 7308334.
  • 24
    Gibson, T. L. Nitroderivatives of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne and source particulate. Atmos. Environ.16: 2037-2040 (1982).
  • 25
    Williams, R. L., and Swarin, S. J. Benzo(a)pyrene emissions from gasoline and diesel automobiles. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1981 paper no. 790419.
  • 26
    Lee, F. S.-C., Prater, T. J., and Ferris, F. PAH emission from a stratified-charge vehicle with and without oxidation catalyst: sampling and analysis evaluation. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons, P. W. Jones and P. Leber (Eds.), Ann Arbor Science Press, Ann Arbor, MI, 1979, pp. 83-110.
  • 27
    Pedersen, P. S., Ingversen, J., Nielsen, T., and Larsen, E. Effects of fuel, lubricant and engine operating parameters on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Envi- ron. Sci. Technol.14: 71-79 (1980).
  • 28
    Stenberg, U., Westerholm, R., Alsberg, T., Rannug, U., and Sundvall, A. Enrichment of PAH and PAH derivatives from automobile exhausts by means of a cryogradient sampling system. Paper presented at 6th International Symposium on PAH, Columbus, OH, Oct. 23-27, 1981.
  • 29
    Anonymous. Enflüsse der Betriebszeit des Motors sowie des Motorschmieröles auf die Emission von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffe aus Kraftfahrzeugen mit Ottomotoren. DGMK Berichte 110, Hamburg, 1977.
  • 30
    Handa, T., Yamamura, T., Kato, Y., Saito, S., and Ishii, T. Factors analysis and derivation of an experimental equation on polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons emissions from auto- mobiles. Environ. Sci. Technol.13: 1077-1081 (1979).
  • 31
    Candeli, A., Mastrandrea, V., Morozzi, G., and Toccaceli, S. Carcinogenic air pollutants in the exhausts from an Euro- pean car operating on various fuels. Atmos. Environ.8: 693- 705 (1974).
  • 32
    Candeli, A., Morozzi, G., Paolacci, A., and Zoccolillo, L. Analysis using thin layer and gas liquid chromatography of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the exhausts products from an European car running on fuel containing a range of concentrations of these hydrocarbons. Atmos. Environ.9: 843-849 (1975).
  • 34
    Ames, B. N., McCann, J., and Yamasaki, E. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella! mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test. Mutat. Res.31: 347-364 (1975).
  • 35
    Rannug, U. Data from short-term tests on motor vehicles. Environ Health Perspect.47: 000-000 (1982).
  • 36
    Egebäck, K. E. (Ed.). Chemical and Biological Character- ization of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions, When Using Differ- ent Engine/Fuel Combinations. National Swedish Environ- ment Protection Board, Stockholm, Dec. 1982.
  • 37
    Pitts, J. N., Jr. Formation and fate of gaseous and particu- late mutagens and carcinogens in real and simulated atmos- pheres. Environ. Health Perspect.47: 115-140 (1983).
  • 38
    Nielsen, T.A study of the reactivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Nordic PAH project, report 10, Oslo 1981.
  • 39
    Jäger, J. Detection and characterization of nitro derivatives of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fluorescence quenching after thin layer chromatography: application to air pollution analysis. J. Chromatogr.152: 575-578 (1978).
  • 40
    Stump, F., Bradow, R., Ray, W., Dropkin, D., Zweidinger, R., Sigsby, J., and Snow, R. Trapping gaseous hydrocar- bons for mutagenic testing, EPA, Research Triangle Park, Draft copy, Oct. 1981.
  • 41
    Jonsson, A., and Persson, K. Analysis of alcohols and alkylnitrites. In: Chemical and Biological Characterization of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions when Using Different Engine/ Fuel Combinations, K. E. Egeback (Ed.), National Swedish Environment Protection Board, Stockholm, Dec. 1982.
  • 42
    Stenberg, U., Alsberg, T., Blomberg, L., and Wannman, T. Gas chromatographic separation of high molecular PAH in samples from different sources, using temperature-stable glass capillary columns. In: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydro- carbons, P. W. Jones and P. Leber (Eds.), Ann Arbor Science Press, Ann Arbor, MI, 1979, pp. 313-326.
  • 43
    Lindskog, A. Transformation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons during sampling. Environ. Health Perspect. 47: 81-84 (1983).
  • 44
    Handa, T., Kato, Y., Yamamura, T., and Ishii, T. Correla- tion between the concentration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and those of particulates in an urban atmo- sphere. Environ. Sci. Technol.4: 416-422 (1980).
  • 45
    Cautreels, W., and van Cauwenberghe, K. A. Experiments on the distribution of organic pollutants between airborne particulate matter and the corresponding gas phase. Atmos. Environ.12: 1133-1141 (1978).
  • 46
    Thrane, K. E., and Mikalsen, A. High volume sampling of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using glass fibre filters and polyurethane foam. Atmos. Environ.15: 909-918 (1981).
  • 47
    Lee, F. S.-C., and Schuetzle, D. Sampling, extraction and analysis of PAH from internal combustion engines. In: Handbook of PAH, A. Bjorseth (Ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York, in press.