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Ultrasonic Acoustical Emissions from Sapwood of Eastern White Pine, Northern Red Oak, Red Maple, and Paper Birch: Implications for Bark- and Wood-Feeding Insects

Robert A. Haack, Richard W. Blank, Frederick T. Fink and William J. Mattson
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 71, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 427-440
DOI: 10.2307/3495002
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3495002
Page Count: 14
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Ultrasonic Acoustical Emissions from Sapwood of Eastern White Pine, Northern Red Oak, Red Maple, and Paper Birch: Implications for Bark- and Wood-Feeding Insects
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Abstract

Ultrasonic acoustical emissions (AEs) were recorded from trunk samples of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., northern red oak, Quercus rubra L., paper birch, Betula papyrifera Marsh., and red maple, Acer rubrum L., that were cut in winter (February) and allowed to dry indoors. Emission rates were determined for waxed and unwaxed samples at weekly intervals throughout the drying period. Waveform parameters determined for each AE were duration, counts (oscillations above threshold), rise time, amplitude, energy, and average frequency (counts/duration). For all tree species, AE rates from unwaxed samples first increased and then decreased during drying, and they were several times greater than rates for waxed samples. For white pine, mean duration, counts, rise time, amplitude, and energy decreased over time while average frequency increased. Such patterns were often lacking among the three hardwood species. Average waveform parameters differed among species; AEs from white pine were strongest while those from red oak were weakest. Implications for bark- and wood-boring insects are discussed. /// Emisiones acústicas ultrasónicas (EAU) se registraron en muestras de troncos de pinos blancos del este, Pinus strobus L., robles rojos del norte, Quercus rubra L., abedul de papel, Betula papyrifera Marsh., y en el meple rojo, Acer rubrum L., que fueron cortados en el invierno (Febrero) y secados dentro de la casa. Se determinó la proporción de emisión de muestras enceradas y sin encerar a intervalos semanales durante el período que se secaban. Los parámetros determinados del tipo de onda para cada EAU fueron duración, conteo, (oscilación encima del umbral), tiempo en ascender, amplitud, energía, y el promedio de la frecuencia (conteo/ duración) Para todas las especies de árboles, la proporción de EAU de muestras sin cera primero aumentó y despues disminuyó cuando se secaban y fueron varias veces mayor que la proporción de muestras enceradas. Para los pinos blancos, el intermedio de duración, conteo, tiempo en ascender, amplitud, y energía, disminuyó con el tiempo mientras que el promedio de la frecuencia aumentó. Tales patrones amenudo estaban ausentes entre las tres especies de madera dura. El promedio de los parámetros del tipo de onda diferió entre las especies; EAU del pino blanco fueron los más fuertes mientras que aquellos del roble rojo fueron los más débiles. Se discuten las implicaciones para insectos taladradores de la corteza y de la madera.

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