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Escapees and Accomplices: The Naturalization of Exotic Ficus and Their Associated Faunas in Florida

Hannah Nadel, J. Howard Frank and R. J. Knight, Jr.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 75, No. 1 (Mar., 1992), pp. 29-38
DOI: 10.2307/3495478
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3495478
Page Count: 10
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Escapees and Accomplices: The Naturalization of Exotic Ficus and Their Associated Faunas in Florida
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Abstract

Over 60 exotic Ficus (fig) species have been introduced into southern Florida as ornamentals. Three of these, F. altissima Blume, F. benghalensis L., and F. microcarpa L. are now weedy because they are pollinated routinely by immigrant agaonid wasps [Eupristina sp., Eupristina masoni Saunders, and Parapristina verticillata (Waterston) respectively]. Conditions for colonization by these wasps appear to have been met, and are potentially suitable for pollination of two other fig species. Four other immigrant wasp species (three pteromalids and a torymid) occupy the fruits of F. microcarpa and may interact with the pollinating wasps. Such interactions are more complex, but scarcely understood, in the native F. aurea Nuttall and F. citrifolia P. Miller, in which at least 10 and 14 species respectively of other animals occur routinely. These other animals include Hymenoptera (Torymidae, Eurytomidae, and Pteromalidae), Diptera (Cecidomyiidae), Coleoptera (Staphylinidae), Acarina (Tarsonemidae), and Nematoda (Diplogasteridae and Aphelenchoididae). Because of their potentially negative effect on agaonid populations, non-pollinating fig faunas should be examined to determine whether they may play a role in control of weedy figs. /// Mas de 60 especies de Ficus se han introducido en Florida como ornamentales. Tres de estos, F. altisima Blume, F.benghalensis L., y F. microcarpa L., se consideran como malezas porque son polinizadas rutinariamente por avispas migratorias, pertenecientes a la familia Agaonidae [Eupristina sp., Eupristina masoni Saunders, y Parapristina verticillata (Waterson) respectivamante]. Las condiciones para la colonización de estas avispas es adecuada para la polinización de otras 2 especies de caucho. Otras cuatro especies de avispas (tres pteromalidos y un torymido) ocupan las frutas de F. microcarpa y podrían entrecruzarse con las avispas polinizadoras. Estas interacciones son mas complejas y poco conocidas en las plantas nativas F. aurea Nuttall y F. citrifolia P. Miller, en las cuales ocurren frequentemente por lo menos 10 y 14 especies de otros animales. Estos otros animales incluyen Hymenoptera (Torymidae, Eurytomida y Pteromalida), Diptera (Cecidomyiidae), Coleoptera (Staphylinidae), Acarina (Tarsonemida) y Nematoda (Diplogasteridae y Aphelenchoididae). Por su efecto negativo en las poblaciones de Agaonidos, la fauna no polinizadora de los cauchos debe ser examinada para determinar si ellos juegan un papel en el control de estas malezas.

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