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Release, Establishment and Spread of Asian Natural Enemies of Euonymus Scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in New England

R. G. Van Driesche, K. Idoine, M. Rose and M. Bryan
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 81, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 1-9
DOI: 10.2307/3495990
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3495990
Page Count: 9
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Release, Establishment and Spread of Asian Natural Enemies of Euonymus Scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in New England
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Abstract

Between 1990 and 1995, the USDA/APHIS National Biological Control Laboratory in Niles, MI, Texas A&M University, and the University of Massachusetts conducted a biological control introduction program against the Asian diaspidid scale insect Unaspis euonymi (Comstock), a pest of woody landscape plants. Two species of predators (Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, Coleop.: Coccinellidae and Cybocephalus sp. nr. nipponicus Enrody-Younga, Coleop.: Cybocephalidae) and three aphelinid parasitoids (Encarsia sp. nr. diaspidicola [Silvestri], Coccobius sp. nr. fulvus [Compere et Annecke], and Aphytis sp.) were collected near Beijing, China and released in southern New England. We report establishment of C. kuwanae, C. sp. nr. nipponicus and Coccobius sp. nr. fulvus in Massachusetts. Chilocorus kuwanae has spread throughout southern New England and the proportion of euonymus shrubs in landscape-level surveys bearing C. kuwanae stages was positively related to scale density, with the coccinellid present on 1.1%, 6.3%, 12.5%, and 26.3% of shrubs whose scale populations were classified as none, light, medium, and heavy, among 4843 plants examined from 1992-1994 in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Cybocephalus sp. nr. nipponicus and C. sp. nr. fulvus, while established at some release sites, have been observed to spread to new locations in only one and two instances, respectively. Encarsia sp. nr. diaspidicola was recovered at some release locations, but establishment is uncertain. No recoveries were made of the Aphytis sp. parasitoid, but this species was released later than the other species and further recovery efforts are needed. /// Entre 1990 y 1995 el Laboratorio Nacional de Control Biológico del USDA/APHIS en Niles, Michigan, la Universidad de Texas A&M, y la Universidad de Massachusetts dirigieron un programa de control biológico de introducción en contra de la escama asiática Unaspis euonymi (Comstock) (Diaspididae), una plaga que ataca arbustos leñosos utilizados en arreglos de jardinería. Dos especies de depredadores (Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, Coleop.: Coccinellidae y Cybocephalus sp. nr. nipponicus Endrody-Younga, Coleop.: Cybocephalidae) y tres parasitoides de Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae (Encarsia sp. nr. diaspidicola (Silvestri), Coccobius sp. nr. fulvus (Compere et Annecke), y Aphytis sp.), fueron colectados cerca de Beijing, China, y liberados en el sur de New England. Reportamos el establecimiento de C. kuwanae, C. sp. nr. nipponicus y Coccobius sp. nr. fulvus en Massachusetts. Chilocorus kuwanae se ha extendido por todo el sur de New England; las proporciones de arbustos de euonymus muestreados en jardines con estadíos de C. kuwanae resultaron estar relacionados estadísticamente en forma positiva con la densidad de la escama, con la presencia de la coccinela en 1.1%, 6.3%, 12.5%, y 26.3% de los arbustos con poblaciones de escamas clasificadas como nula, ligera, mediana, y fuerte en 4,843 plantas examinadas en 1992-1994 en Massachusetts, Connecticut, y Rhode Island. Cybocephalus sp. nr. nipponicus y C. sp. nr. fulvus, aunque se establecieron en algunos sitios donde se realizaron liberaciones, han sido observados en otros sitios en sólo una y dos ocasiones respectivamente. Encarsia sp. nr. diaspidicola fué recolectada en varias localidades donde liberaciones fueron realizadas, pero su establecimiento no está confirmado. Recolectas del parasitoide Aphytis sp. no se han logrado, pero como esta especie fué liberada más tarde que las otras especies, es necesario que se realicen más esfuerzos de recolección en el futuro.

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