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Uruguay: las alternativas de un presidencialismo pluralista

Jorge Lanzaro
Revista Mexicana de Sociología
Vol. 60, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1998), pp. 187-215
DOI: 10.2307/3541276
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3541276
Page Count: 29
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Uruguay: las alternativas de un presidencialismo pluralista
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Abstract

Remontando el debate parlamentarismo versus presidencialismo, este artículo se suma a los trabajos que proponen una evaluación más positiva de las matrices de la democracia presidencial e insiste en la necesidad de construir tipologías que den cuenta de la diversidad de los presidencialismos existentes, atendiendo a la complejidad de dimensiones de los sistemas políticos y distinguiendo, en particular, las formas de corte mayoritario o plebiscitarias, de las formas más pluralistas, tal como otros autores lo han hecho en relación con los regímenes parlamentarios y con las democracias en general. Este enfoque permite acercarse con otros ojos a las opciones de reforma y a las alternativas de la democracia en América Latina. Con referencia al análisis comparado, el artículo se asienta en la consideración del régimen uruguayo --como un caso histórico de presidencialismo pluralista-- con prácticas seculares de compromiso y figuras de coalición, que se desarrollan con el cambio del bipartidismo al tripartidismo y se ven sometidas a nuevas pruebas a partir de la reforma constitucional de 1996. /// Going back to the debate on parliamentarianism vs. presidentialism, this article is part of the trend proposing a more positive evaluation of the matrices of presidential democracy. It stresses the need to construct typologies that account for the diversity of existing forms of presidentialism, note the complexity of aspects of political systems and above all, distinguish between those of a majority or plebiscite nature and those of a more pluralistic nature, as other authors have done in relation to parliamentary regimes and democracies in general. This approach casts a fresh light on the reform options and alternatives for democracy in Latin America. Using the technique of comparative analysis, this article focuses on an examination of the Uruguayan regime -- as a historical case of pluralistic presidentialism -- with well-established practices of compromise and coalition, which arose as a result of the shift from a two-to a three-party system and were subjected to further tests following the constitutional reform of 1996.

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