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Journal Article

Fecundity, and the Relation of Egg Weight Variation to Offspring Fitness in the Speckled Wood Butterfly Pararge aegeria, or Why Don't Butterfly Females Lay More Eggs?

Christer Wiklund and Ann Persson
Oikos
Vol. 40, No. 1 (Jan., 1983), pp. 53-63
Published by: Wiley on behalf of Nordic Society Oikos
DOI: 10.2307/3544198
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3544198
Page Count: 11
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Fecundity, and the Relation of Egg Weight Variation to Offspring Fitness in the Speckled Wood Butterfly Pararge aegeria, or Why Don't Butterfly Females Lay More Eggs?
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Abstract

Females of the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria L., lay eggs that decrease in size over the oviposition period. By weighing all of the individual eggs laid by two females and rearing the larvae from these eggs individually we assessed whether there was any correlation between egg weight and (1) egg survival, (2) larval survival, (3) larval development time, and (4) pupal weight. Our results indicated that none of these fitness variables was correlated with egg weight. Since females could have increased their fecundity by some 25% if they had laid small eggs only, this result raises the question of what factor can be responsible for counteracting the maximization of the number of eggs laid by the speckled wood. Since several lines of evidence indicate that time is a limiting factor for ovipositing butterflies, and it is well known that butterfly females devote considerable time to locating suitable habitats and host plants for the deposition of their eggs, we hypothesize that butterfly females have to make a trade-off between maximizing the number of eggs laid and the time spent searching for suitable oviposition sites for each individual egg. In consequence the factor responsible for counteracting the evolution of "unbridled fecundity" in the speckled wood might be classified as a kind of "parental care". /// Самки пятнистой древесной бабочки Pararge aegeria L. откладывают яйца, уменъшающиеся в размерах в течение периода яйцекладки. Путем взвешивания всех индивидуалъно отложенных яиц двума самками и выведения из них гуоениц при индивидуалъном содержании мы исследовали наличие корреляцин между вессм яйца и 1. выживаемостъю яйца, 2. выживаемостъю гусениц, 3. длителъностъю личиночной фазы, 4. весом куколок. Резулътаты показали. что ни одна из этих переменных не коррелирует с весом яйца. Так как самки могут повышатъ плодовитостъ на 25%, если они откладывают толъко мелкие яйца, встает вопрос, какие факторы могут окажыватъ противодействие увеличению числа яиц у бабочек. Так как разные линии доказателъств свидетелъствуют, что время - лимигирующий фактор яйцекладки бабочек, и, хорошо известно, что самки бабочек тратят много времени на поиск подходящих местообитаний и растений-хозяев для откладки своих яиц, мы предположили, что самки бабочек должны выбиратъ между увеличением количества яиц и длителъностъю поиска подходящих иямт для откладки отделъных яиц. В резулътате фактор, препятствущий развитию "немозаичной плодовитости" у P. aegeria может бытъ классифицирован как вид "заботы о потомстве".

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