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The Cost of Being Aposematic. An Experimental Study of Predation on Larvae of Papilio Machaon by the Great Tit Parus Major

Torbjörn Järvi, Birgitta Sillén-Tullberg and Christer Wiklund
Oikos
Vol. 36, No. 3 (Mar., 1981), pp. 267-272
Published by: Wiley on behalf of Nordic Society Oikos
DOI: 10.2307/3544623
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3544623
Page Count: 6
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
The Cost of Being Aposematic. An Experimental Study of Predation on Larvae of Papilio Machaon by the Great Tit Parus Major
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Abstract

Today there is a general consensus that aposematic coloration only can evolve through kin selection. This follows from the contention that aposematic insects are constantly conspicuous and killed when first encountered by a predator. To test the cost of being aposematic fifteen wild-caught great tits, Parus major L., were allowed to choose between mealworms and swallowtail larvae, Papilio machaon L. Generally the birds (73%) attacked the swallowtail larva at the first opportunity and learned to avoid the larvae after experiencing their distastefulness. However, all the swallowtail larvae survived the attack. Thus, the cost of being aposematic may be quite small, especially as aposematic coloration need not be equivalent to advertising coloration, but may render an insect simultaneously cryptic and aposematic. Accordingly, kin selection should not be considered a prerequisite for the evolution of aposematic coloration. /// В настоящее время имеется общее мнение, что средупреждакщая окраска может быть причиной близкородственного отбора. Это следует из представления, что апосематические насекомые всегда заметны и уничтожаются при первой встрече с врагом. Для проверки значения апосематической окраски 15 пойманным на воле большим синицам Parus major L. позволили выбирать жертв среди мучных червей и гусениц махаона Papilio machaon L. Обычно птицы (73%) нападали на гусениц махаона при первой возможности, но зате научились изберать их после ошущения их не риятного вкуса. Однако, все гусеницы махаона пережили нападения синиц. Таким образом, значение апосематической окраски достаточно невелико, особенно если апосематическая окраска необязательно эквивалентна привлекающей окраске, но может делят насекомое одновременно незаметным и апосематическим. Соотвественно близкородственный отбор не должен россматриваться как пререквизит эволюции апосематической окраски.

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