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Multiple Origins of Sequestrate Fungi Related to Cortinarius (Cortinariaceae)

Ursula Peintner, Neale L. Bougher, Michael A. Castellano, Jean-Marc Moncalvo, Meinhard M. Moser, James M. Trappe and Rytas Vilgalys
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 88, No. 12 (Dec., 2001), pp. 2168-2179
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3558378
Page Count: 12
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Multiple Origins of Sequestrate Fungi Related to Cortinarius (Cortinariaceae)
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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the phylogeny and evolution of sequestrate fungi (with gastroid or partially exposed basidiomes) in relation to their gilled relatives from the Cortinariaceae (Basidiomycetes). Phylogenetic analyses of 151 ITS sequences from 77 gilled species and 37 sequestrate taxa were performed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Results show that sequestrate basidiome forms occur in all three major ectomycorrhizal lineages of Cortinariaceae: the clades Cortinarius, Hebeloma/Hymenogaster/Naucoria, and Descolea. However, these forms do not appear within the saprobic outgroup Gymnopilus, indicating multiple origins of sequestrate forms from ectomycorrhizal ancestors. Additionally, within the Cortinarius clade sequestrate forms have multiple origins: emergent Cortinarius spp., Thaxterogaster, Quadrispora, Protoglossum, and two Hymenogaster spp. (H. remyi, H. sublilacinus) share common ancestors with Cortinarius spp., but these sequestrate genera are not closely related to each other (with exception of Thaxterogaster and Quadrispora). Hymenogaster sensu stricto, Setchelliogaster, and Descomyces were placed in the two other major clades. Thus, sequestrate taxa evolved independently many times within brown-spored Agaricales. Furthermore, emergent, secotioid, and gastroid forms have evolved independently from each other, and so are not necessarily intermediate forms. After their establishment, these apparently morphologically stable taxa show a tendency to radiate.

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