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Effects of Plant Size, Plant Density and Sex Differential Nectar Reward on Pollinator Visitation in the Protandrous Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae)

Peter G. L. Klinkhamer and Tom J. de Jong
Oikos
Vol. 57, No. 3 (Apr., 1990), pp. 399-405
Published by: Wiley on behalf of Nordic Society Oikos
DOI: 10.2307/3565970
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3565970
Page Count: 7
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Effects of Plant Size, Plant Density and Sex Differential Nectar Reward on Pollinator Visitation in the Protandrous Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae)
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Abstract

The number of bumblebee approaches to viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare L.) plants increased with the number of flowers per plant. The proportion of the number of flowers visited after an approach was smaller in plants with many flowers. Individual flowers on large plants received significantly fewer visits than flowers on small plants. Compared with plants in dense parts of a population, isolated plants received fewer approaches that lasted longer. The result of this was that the number of visits to individual flowers did not differ between plants in dense parts of a population and isolated plants. The protandrous flowers lasted for two to three days. During the male phase the flowers presented a higher nectar reward and were more frequently visisted than during the female phase.

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