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Factors Associated with the Preincubation Effect of Hypoxic Cell Sensitizers in Vitro and Their Possible Implications in Chemosensitization

Laurie Roizin-Towle, John E. Biaglow, Herbert L. Meltzer and Marie E. Varnes
Radiation Research
Vol. 98, No. 3 (Jun., 1984), pp. 506-518
DOI: 10.2307/3576484
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3576484
Page Count: 13
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Factors Associated with the Preincubation Effect of Hypoxic Cell Sensitizers in Vitro and Their Possible Implications in Chemosensitization
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Abstract

The enhancement of melphalan toxicity was observed by preincubation of V-79-379A cells in spinner culture with multiple doses of misonidazole (miso) or SR-2508 under hypoxic conditions. Chemosensitization was shown to be a function of sensitizer concentration and duration of exposure to the alkylating agent. A preincubation exposure of cells with 5 mM miso reduced endogenous cell thiols to less than 5% of controls and enhanced melphalan toxicity by a factor of 4.7. Cells preincubated with miso not only had lower levels of nonprotein thiols, but also were shown to have altered levels of intracellular calcium and a lower threshold to oxidative stress as measured by toxicity to cysteamine or H2 O2. Preincubated cells, hypoxic cells, and cells receiving moderate hyperthermia (42.5°C for 3 hr) all showed increased sensitivity to either cysteamine or H2 O2. The increased killing of preincubated cells by cysteamine was shown to be similar to that of H2 O2, and the dramatic reduction of cysteamine toxicity by catalase indicated H2 O2 was the major reaction associated with this effect. These results indicate that preincubated cells exhibit a variety of biological effects that may significantly influence their response to further treatment with drugs or radiation, especially where peroxidative and free radical mechanisms are involved. The depletion of endogenous thiols, calcium disturbance, and vulnerability to oxidative stress are factors to be considered when interpreting mechanisms of combined drug action and effects that may potentially be exploited in terms of therapeutic gains.

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