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Energetics, Behavior and the Zoogeography of Anhingas and Double-Crested Cormorants

Willard W. Hennemann, III
Ornis Scandinavica (Scandinavian Journal of Ornithology)
Vol. 16, No. 4 (Dec., 1985), pp. 319-323
Published by: Wiley on behalf of Nordic Society Oikos
DOI: 10.2307/3676697
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3676697
Page Count: 5
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Energetics, Behavior and the Zoogeography of Anhingas and Double-Crested Cormorants
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Abstract

The northernmost limits of the distributions of Anhingas and Double-crested Cormorants in the month of December for the years 1977-1981 were examined. Physiological and ecological explanations for the zoogeography of these species were sought through energy budgets constructed from time budget, energetic (rates of metabolism), and climatological data. Anhingas are geographically restricted by physical factors related to their energetics, such as mean monthly temperature and the availability of insolation. Double-crested Cormorants appear not to be limited by energetic consequences, but by another ecological factor such as the availability of open water.

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