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The Origins of Southern Sharecropping

Ralph Shlomowitz
Agricultural History
Vol. 53, No. 3 (Jul., 1979), pp. 557-575
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3742755
Page Count: 19
Subjects: History
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Notes and References

This item contains 25 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Stephen J. DeCanio, Agriculture in the Postbellum South: The Economy of Production and Supply (Cambridge, Mass,: The MIT Press, 1975)
    • Robert Higgs, Competition and Coercion: Blacks in the American Economy, 1865–1914 (New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 1977)
    • Roger L. Ransom and Richard Sutch, One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation (New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 1977)
  • 3
    "Sequel to Slavery: The New History Views the Postbellum South," Journal of Southern History43 (November1977): 523, 550.
  • 5
    Ralph Shlomowitz, "The Transition from Slave to Freedman Labor Arrangements in South¬ ern Agriculture, 1865-1870," Journal of Economic History39 (March1979)
  • 6
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Joel Williamson, After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina During Re- construction: 1861–1877 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1965), 126-42
    • Peter Kolchin, First Freedom: The Responses of Alabama's Blacks to Emanci- pation and Reconstruction (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972), 30-48
  • 7
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Joel Williamson has suggested that the decline in the demand for Bureau- approved contracts during 1867
    • 1868 was an indicator of the "success of the pro- gram"
    • After Slavery, 95
  • 8
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Orangeburg, January 1866
    • Marion, October 1867
  • 11
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Southern Cultivator23 [1865]: 180
    • ibid. 24 [1866]: 4
    • S. Andrews, The South Since the War [Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1866], 99
    • USDA Annual Report, 1867, p. 417
  • 12
    Ransom and Sutch, One Kind of Freedom, 89.
  • 13
    USDA Annual Report, 1876, p. 152
  • 14
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • After Slavery, 128, note 8
    • One Kind of Freedom, 60–61, 90, 94
    • One Kind of Freedom, 68, 88, 97
  • 16
    Gavin Wright, "The Economics of Cotton in the Antebellum South" (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1969), 120–21, 127
  • 17
    Southern Cultivator23 (1865): 180.
  • 18
    Jacob Metzer, "Rational Management, Modern Business Practices, and Econ- omies of Scale in the Ante-Bellum Southern Plantations," Explorations in Economic History12 (April1975): 138.
  • 19
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Woodman, "Sequel to Slavery," 551
    • Williamson, After Slavery, 133
    • Ransom and Sutch, One Kind of Freedom, 60, 94
  • 20
    Ransom and Sutch, One Kind of Freedom, 330, note 17.
  • 21
    South- ern Cultivator23 [1865]: 180-81
  • 22
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • A. Alchian and H. Demsetz, "Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organization," American Economic Review62 (December1972): 777-95
    • O. E. Wiiliamson, Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization (New York: The Free Press, 1975), chap. 3
  • 23
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • M. Argyle, The Social Psychology of Work (London: Penguin Books, 1976), 40-41
    • A. K. Rice, Productivity and Social Organization: The Ahmedabad Ex- periment. Technical Innovation, Work Organization, and Management (London: Tavistock Publications, 1958), 36-38
  • 24
    Metzer, "Rational Management."
  • 25
    my paper "The Squad System on Postbellum Cotton Plantations," in Southern Communities in the Nineteenth Century, ed. Robert McMath and Vernon Burton (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, forthcoming)
  • 26
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ransom and Sutch, One Kind of Freedom, 100, 219
    • Ransom and Sutch, One Kind of Freedom, 84
  • 27
    Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, Time on the Cross: The Eco- nomics of American Negro Slavery, 2 vols. (Boston: Little Brown, 1974).
  • 28
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Southern Cultivator29 [1871]: 370
    • ibid. 38 [1880]: 444–45
  • 30
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ralph Shlomowitz, "Teamwork and Incentives: The Origins and Develop- ment of the Butty Gang System in Queensland's Sugar Industry, 1891-1913," Journal of Comparative Economics3 (March1979)
    • Shlomowitz, "The Search for Insti- tutional Equilibrium in Queensland's Sugar Industry, 1884-1913," Australian Eco- nomic History Review19 (September1979)
  • 32
    Lance E. Davis and Douglass E. North, Institutional Change and American Economic Growth (New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 1971), 263