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Nursing Home Survey Deficiencies for Physical Restraint Use

David R. Graber and Philip D. Sloane
Medical Care
Vol. 33, No. 10 (Oct., 1995), pp. 1051-1063
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3766677
Page Count: 13
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Nursing Home Survey Deficiencies for Physical Restraint Use
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Abstract

New federal regulations, implemented in 1990, severely restrict the use of physical restraints in nursing homes nationwide. This study evaluated the impact of these regulations on North Carolina nursing homes during 1991. An average of 32.6% of facility residents were restrained during that year, and 29.2% of facilities were cited for violation of the restraint regulations. Annual health department surveys of a sample of 195 North Carolina nursing homes were analyzed. The facility proportion of restrained residents was modeled using estimated weighted least-squares regression. A probit model was used to predict if the facility received a deficiency for restraint use. Facility-level factors associated with overall restraint use were the ratio of licensed vocational nurse/nursing assistant staff to residents in the facility, and the overall facility disability level. Factors associated with the receipt of a restraint violation were facility size, direct costs per patient day, the proportion of restrained patients, use of bladder training in less than 3% of residents, and the proportion of residents with organic brain syndrome; variables that were of borderline significance included proprietary affiliation, the proportion of intubated residents, the facility disability level, and the proportion of residents on psychotropic medication. These findings indicate that, despite implementation of these regulations, nearly one third of North Carolina nursing home residents remained physically restrained. The characteristics associated with restraint use and with restraints violations can be used to identify facilities most likely to benefit from assistance and education in reducing physical restraints.

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