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Religion et politique en Pologne (1945-1984)

Krzysztof Pomian
Vingtième Siècle. Revue d'histoire
No. 10 (Apr. - Jun., 1986), pp. 83-101
DOI: 10.2307/3769532
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3769532
Page Count: 19
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Religion et politique en Pologne (1945-1984)
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Abstract

Où passe en Pologne la frontière entre le politique et le religieux? Quels espaces de liberté l'Etat laisse-t-il à l'Eglise? La piété catholique des opposants au régime, celle de Lech Walesa tout particulièrement, est-elle tradition nationale, nécessité personnelle, foi individuelle ou réflexe de persécuté? C'est dans l'histoire des rapports entre l'Eglise et le Parti depuis 1945 qu'il faut chercher les réponses. /// Although the Polish Worker's Party (PWP) still claims its devotion to marxist-leninist ideology, it proclaims, unlike the USSR, its indefectible attachment to the principle of religious freedom. But Church-state relations have not always been smooth since 1945: they were peaceful only for three brief periods, from 1944 to 1948, from 1956 to 1958, and since 1978. While the state accepts the individual religious practice, it condemns "militant clericalism". The definition of this expression is a source of conflict. What criteria can be used to draw the line between religious intolerance and the exercise of pastoral activities? The limit of the PWP's concessions to the church does not go beyond the conducting of liturgical ceremonies and the teaching of church doctrine, provided no allusion is made to the modern daily life of church-goers. From this point of view, Father Popieluszko's assassination may be seen as the ultimate result of the tendency to fight "political clericalism" and to equate certain priests with counter-revolutionary militants. This explains the force of contestation that the Catholic church can represent and direct within contemporary Polish society.

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