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Who Joined the Confederate Army? Soldiers, Civilians, and Communities in Mississippi

Larry M. Logue
Journal of Social History
Vol. 26, No. 3 (Spring, 1993), pp. 611-623
Published by: Oxford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3788629
Page Count: 13
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Who Joined the Confederate Army? Soldiers, Civilians, and Communities in Mississippi
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Abstract

Previous studies have indicated that fear for white supremacy often impelled men to join the Confederate army. This study of enlistments in Mississippi finds similar sentiments in soldiers' testimony, but a statewide sample of soldiers and noncombatants qualifies racism's effects. The amount of personal property owned, including slaves, did indeed increase the likelihood that an individual would defend the Confederacy, but men in Mississippi's river counties, regardless of their wealth or other characteristics, were less likely to join the army than were those living in the state's interior. Special censuses taken during the war suggest that many military-age men in these counties had moved elsewhere. The river made its neighbors especially vulnerable, and river-county residents apparently left their communities (and often the Confederacy) rather than face invasion. The article deals with the debate among scholars over the question of the decline of French science since 1850 and, if one admits that decline occurred, the responsibility of French higher education for it. The declinists were particularly influenced by the theories of Joseph Ben-David, who compared the centralized German and (later) American universities. The revisionist school, led by Harry Paul, accepted some of the criticisms of the declinist school, but pointed to the foundation of several important technical schools in Paris and to the reform of the French universities in 1896 and the creation of engineering schools in the science faculties. These reforms brought considerable local and regional support to provincial faculties, led to closer contacts between industry and higher education, and stimulated significant scientific research as well. The article also discusses the role of the state and industry in scientific research, the relative importance of pure versus applied science, recent reforms in higher education and new research into the relationship of French higher education and industry.

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