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Cel Animation: Mass Production and Marginalization in the Animated Film Industry
Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep. - Oct., 1988), pp. 223-228
Published by: Indiana University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3815119
Page Count: 6
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While Winsor McCay was the pioneer of American animation, it was J. R. Bray who was the first to establish a true animated cartoon studio. His development of the process of cel animation created a rigid division of labor among animation workers, and served as a model for most other studios. While economically successful, this approach soon led the animated film to a marginal and highly conventionalized position within the motion picture industry.
Film History © 1988 Indiana University Press