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Production of Salicylic Acid Precursors Is a Major Function of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase in the Resistance of Arabidopsis to Peronospora parasitica
Brigitte Mauch-Mani and Alan J. Slusarenko
The Plant Cell
Vol. 8, No. 2 (Feb., 1996), pp. 203-212
Published by: American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB)
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3870265
Page Count: 10
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Plants, Lignification, Hyphae, Plant cells, Pathogens, Lignin, Vascular tissues, Parasite hosts, Alcohols, Disease resistance
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Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col-0) seedlings, transformed with a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 promoter (PAL1)-β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter construct, were inoculated with virulent and avirulent isolates of Peronospora parasitica. The PAL1 promoter was constitutively active in the light in vascular tissue but was induced only in the vicinity of fungal structures in the incompatible interaction. A double-staining procedure was developed to distinguish between GUS activity and fungal structures. The PAL1 promoter was activated in cells undergoing lignification in the incompatible interaction in response to the pathogen. Pretreatment of the seedlings with 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a highly specific PAL inhibitor, made the plants completely susceptible. Lignification was suppressed after AIP treatment, and surprisingly, pathogen-induced PAL1 promoter activity could not be detected. Treatment of the seedlings with 2-hydroxyphenylaminosulphinyl acetic acid (1,1-dimethyl ester) (OH-PAS), a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor specific for the lignification pathway, also caused a shift toward susceptibility, but the effect was not as pronounced as it was with AIP. Significantly, although OH-PAS suppressed pathogen-induced lignification, it did not suppress pathogen-induced PAL1 promoter activation. Salicylic acid (SA), supplied to AIP-treated plants, restored resistance and both pathogen-induced lignification and activation of the PAL1 promoter. Endogenous SA levels increased significantly in the incompatible but not in the compatible combination, and this increase was suppressed by AIP but not by OH-PAS. These results provide evidence of the central role of SA in genetically determined plant disease resistance and show that lignification per se, although providing a component of the resistance mechanism, is not the deciding factor between resistance and susceptibility.
The Plant Cell © 1996 American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB)