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2,4-D Amine Antagonism by Salts

John D. Nalewaja, Zenon Woznica and Robert Matysiak
Weed Technology
Vol. 5, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1991), pp. 873-880
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3986908
Page Count: 8
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2,4-D Amine Antagonism by Salts
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Abstract

Research was conducted to determine the influence of salts on 2,4-D toxicity to kochia. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and iron salts except for sulfate and phosphate salts of calcium and sodium were antagonistic to 2,4-D diethanolamine. None of the ammonium salts antagonized 2,4-D control of kochia. Effects of individual ions generally antagonistic to 2,4-D were additive when in mixture. 2,4-D generally controlled kochia better when mixed with various acids than with their ammonium salts in distilled, sodium bicarbonate, or ferric sulfate water carriers, relating to the lower pH with the acids. However, low pH was not essential in overcoming salt antagonism of 2,4-D for kochia control, nor was 2,4-D always effective with low pH. Sulfate and monobasic phosphate anions were most effective in overcoming sodium bicarbonate and calcium chloride antagonism of 2,4-D. The concentration of diammonium sulfate needed to overcome sodium bicarbonate antagonism of 2,4-D increased with sodium bicarbonate concentration. Diammonium sulfate at 2% (w/v) overcame $1200\ {\rm mg}\ {\rm L}^{-1}$ sodium as sodium bicarbonate. Nonionic surfactants and oil adjuvants also overcame antagonism of 2,4-D caused by water from several sources.

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