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Restoring Tallgrass Prairie Species Mixtures on Leafy Spurge-Infested Rangeland

Robert A. Masters, Daniel D. Beran and Roch E. Gaussoin
Journal of Range Management
Vol. 54, No. 4 (Jul., 2001), pp. 362-369
DOI: 10.2307/4003104
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4003104
Page Count: 8
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Restoring Tallgrass Prairie Species Mixtures on Leafy Spurge-Infested Rangeland
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Abstract

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) reduces northern Great Plains rangeland carrying capacity. Treatment strategies were evaluated that suppressed leafy spurge and facilitated establishment of mixtures of native grasses and legumes on range sites near Mason City and Tilden, Nebr. Glyphosate at 1,600 g a.i. (active ingredient) ha-1 was applied with or without imazapic at 140 or 210 g a.i. ha-1 in October 1995. In April 1996, standing crop was burned or mowed. Mixtures of native grasses [big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtiplendula (Michx.) Torr.)] were then planted with or without native legumes [leadplant (Amorpha canescens (Nutt.) Pursh), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM.), and purple prairieclover (Petalostemum purpureum (Vent.) Rybd.)] at 440 pls m-2 into a non-tilled seedbed. Imazapic was applied at 70 g a.i. ha-1 in June 1996 to half the plots that had been treated with imazapic in October 1995. Frequency, dry matter yield, and leafy spurge density were measured 14 to 16 months after planting. Leafy spurge density and yield were least, and frequencies and yields of the planted grasses usually were greatest where imazapic had been applied with glyphosate in October 1995. Purple prairieclover was the only planted legume to persist 14 months after planting, and yields were greatest where imazapic was applied with glyphosate. Imazapic applied in June 1996 usually did not improve planted species yields or leafy spurge control. Total vegetation yields were greater where imazapic was applied with glyphosate at both sites and where native species were seeded at Mason City. Vegetation suppression with fall-applied herbicides and removal of standing crop enabled successful establishment of desirable species, increased forage yields, and suppressed leafy spurge. /// El "Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) reduce la capacidad de carga de los pastizales del norte de las Grandes Planicies. Se evaluaron estrategias de tratamiento que suprimen el "Leafy spurge" y facilitaron el establecimiento de mezclas de zacates nativos y leguminosas en sitios de pastizal cercanos a Mason City, Nebr. En Octubre de 1995 se aplico Glifosato en dosis de 1600 g i.a. (i.a. = ingrediente activo) con y sin Imazapic en dosis de 140 o 210 g i.a. ha-1. En Abril de 1996 el forraje en pie fue segado o quemado y después se plantaron mezclas de zacates nativos ["Big bluestem" (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), "Indiangrass" (Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash), "Switchgrass" (Panicum virgatum L.), "Little bluestem" (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash), and "Sideoats grama" (Bouteloua curtiplendula (Michx.) Torr.)] con y sin leguminosas nativas ["Leadplant" (Amorpha canescens (Nutt.) Pursh), "Illinois bundleflower" (Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM.), and "Purple prairieclover" (Petalostemum purpureum (Vent.) Rybd.)] a una densidad de 440 SPV m-2 en camas de siembra sin labranza. En Junio de 1996 a la mitad de las parcelas que en Octubre de 1995 habían sido tratadas con Imazapic se les aplico Imazapic a una dosis de 70 g i.a ha-1. Después de 14 a 16 meses de la siembra se midió la frecuencia, densidad y rendimiento de materia seca de "Leafy spruge". La densidad y rendimiento de "Leafy spurge" fueron menores y las frecuencias y rendimientos de los zacates plantados usualmente fueron mayores en las áreas donde se aplico Imazapic con Glifosato en Octubre de 1995. La única leguminosa que persistió después de 14 meses de la siembre fue el "Purple prairieclover" y los rendimientos fueron mayores donde se aplico Imazapic con Glifosato. El Imazapic aplicado en Junio de 1996 usualmente no mejoro los rendimientos de las especies plantadas o el control de "Leafy spurge". Los rendimientos totales de la vegetación fueron mayores donde se aplico Imazapic con Glifosato, esto fue similar en ambos sitios y donde las especies nativas se sembraron en Manso City. La supresión de vegetación con herbicidas aplicados en otoño y la remoción de la vegetación en pie permitio el establecimiento exitoso de especies deseables, incrementó los rendimientos de forraje y suprimió el "Leafy spurge".

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