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Influence of Auxin and Sulfonylurea Herbicides on Seeded Native Communities

Kenneth Lair and Edward F. Redente
Journal of Range Management
Vol. 57, No. 2 (Mar., 2004), pp. 211-218
DOI: 10.2307/4003921
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4003921
Page Count: 8
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Influence of Auxin and Sulfonylurea Herbicides on Seeded Native Communities
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Abstract

Sulfonylurea herbicides were used extensively for weed control on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) seedings, constituting over 98% of the residual herbicides applied from 1986-1990 in southeastern Colorado. Differences in species establishment were observed in CRP fields treated with sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that soils and climatic variation alone did not fully account for this establishment pattern. Impacts of 2 commonly used sulfonylurea herbicides and 2 auxin herbicides on establishment, inter-specific seedling competition and physiological response under CRP field conditions were evaluated. Seeded species were blue grama [Bouteloua gracilis (Willd). Ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths], sideoats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.], western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smith; (Rydb.) A. Love], switchgrass [Panicum virgatum L.], and sand dropseed [Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray]. Sulfonylurea herbicide application increased sideoats grama cover and live standing crop as much as 43% over auxin herbicide and mowing treatments, whereas switchgrass and western wheatgrass were reduced up to 71% by sulfonylurea treatment. Switchgrass cover was reduced by application of either sulfonylurea or auxin herbicides. Blue grama and sand dropseed were least affected by herbicide treatment. Auxin herbicide treatment resulted in 70% increases in plant diversity for seeded species and total plant community over sulfonylurea treatment, primarily attributable to increased frequency of annual forbs. Seral stage was more advanced under sulfonylurea treatment, however, because of increased frequency, cover and live standing crop of perennial forbs, grasses, and half-shrubs. /// Los herbicidas de sulfonilurea se usaron extensivamente para el control de maleza en las siembras del Programa de Conservación de Reserva (CRP), constituyendo mas del 98% de los herbicidas residuales aplicados de 1986 a 1990 en el sudeste de Colorado. En los terrenos del CRP tratados con herbicidas de sulfonilurea se observaron diferencias en el establecimiento de especies, sugiriendo que los suelos y las variaciones climáticas por si solas no explican totalmente este patrón de establecimiento. Se evaluaron los impactos de 2 de herbicidas de sulfonilurea comúnmente utilizados y 2 herbicidas de auxina en el establecimiento, competencia interespecifica y respuesta fisiológica bajo condiciones de campo en terrenos del CRP. Las especies sembradas fueron "Blue grama" [Bouteloua gracilis (Willd). Ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths], "Sideoats grama" [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.],"Western wheatgrass" [Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love], "Switchgrass" [Panicum virgatum L.] y "Sand dropseed" [Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray]. La aplicación de herbicidas de sulfonilurea incrementaron la cobertura de "Sideoats grama"y su biomasa viva en pie en 43% más que los herbicidas de auxina y los tratamientos de segado, mientras que el "Switchgrass y "Western wheatgrass" fueron reducidos hasta 71% por los herbicidas de sulfonilurea. La cobertura de "Switchgrass"se redujo tanto por la aplicación de herbicidas de sulfonilurea como los de auxina. El "Blue grama" y "Sand dropseed"fueron los menos afectados por los tratamientos de herbicidas. El tratamiento de herbicidas de auxina resulto en un aumento del 70% de la diversidad de plantas de las especies sembradas y de la comunidad vegetal total sobre los herbicidas de sulfonilurea., esto es atribuible principalmente a un aumento en la frecuencia de hierbas anuales. El estado seral fue más avanzado bajo los tratamientos de herbicidas de sulfonilurea esto debido al incremento en la frecuencia, cobertura y biomasa viva en pie de las hierbas perennes, zacates y semi-arbustos.

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