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El particularismo reconsiderado. Orientación de la acción y contexto institucional

Joaquín Pedro López Novo
Reis: Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas
No. 67 (Jul. - Sep., 1994), pp. 31-63
DOI: 10.2307/40183734
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40183734
Page Count: 33
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El particularismo reconsiderado. Orientación de la acción y contexto institucional
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Abstract

Este estudio llama la atención sobre el prejuicio latente en el uso de la idea del "particularismo" en la sociología contemporánea, y analiza las fuentes de dicho prejuicio en la tradición teórica de la sociología de la acción. Recurriendo a la crítica postweberiana de la burocracia, se muestra que tanto el universalismo como el particularismo son categorías equívocas, que abarcan fenómenos de signo muy distinto --benignos y perversos--, y que lo decisivo son los usos que los actores sociales hacen de ellos. Finalmente, se recurre a los casos del reclutamiento del profesorado universitario en Italia y en Inglaterra con objeto de explorar la relación existente entre contexto institucional y tipo de particularismo --perverso o benigno. /// In this study, it is argued that the concept of particularism is usually misunderstood, and that such misunderstanding stems from an entrenched prejudice with roots in the theoretical tradition of the sociology of action. Drawing on the tradition of the post-weberian analysis of bureaucracy, it is shown that both universalism and particularism are equivocal categories, which embrace phenomena with very different meanings and consequences. In this context, it is argued that what is crucial it is not universalism or particularism as such, but the uses that social actors made of them. In the last section, the recruitment processes of university professors in Italy and England are examined in order to grasp the nature of the relationship between institutional context and types of particularism --beneficial or perverse.

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