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Quantitative and Qualitative Anamnestic Immune Responses to Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Children 5 Years after Vaccination

Shabir A. Madhi, Keith P. Klugman, Locadiah Kuwanda, Clare Cutland, Helena Käyhty and Peter Adrian
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Vol. 199, No. 8 (Apr. 15, 2009), pp. 1168-1176
Published by: Oxford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40254563
Page Count: 9
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Quantitative and Qualitative Anamnestic Immune Responses to Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Children 5 Years after Vaccination
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Abstract

Background. Administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to HIV-infected children during infancy confers limited long-term protection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. The objective of the present study was to determine the immune responses to PCV at 5 years of age in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children who had been primed with vaccine during infancy (i.e., previous vaccinees) and in those receiving their first dose of vaccine (i.e., control subjects). Methods. Serotype-specific antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay, and antibody functionality to serotypes 6B, 9V, and 19F were evaluated using an opsonophagocytic killing assay 1 month after vaccination. Results. Of the HIV-infected children, 19.7% were receiving antiretroviral therapy, and 40.5% had a CD4⁺ cell percentage < 15%. Geometric mean concentrations of antibody and the proportion with a concentration ≥ 0.35 micrograms/mL after vaccination were greater among HIV-uninfected children than among HIV-infected children for both previous vaccinees and control subjects. Antibody concentrations after vaccination were lower for 3 of 7 serotypes among HIV-infected previous vaccinees than among control subjects. Detectable opsonophagocytic activity to all studied serotypes was lower among HIV-infected than among HIV-uninfected previous vaccinees and control subjects. Postvaccination antibody-mediated killing activity as determined by the opsonophagocytic killing assay was enhanced in control subjects compared with previous vaccinees among HIV-uninfected children. Conclusion. HIV-infected vaccinees experience a partial loss of anamnestic responses to PCV. The optimal timing and frequency of booster vaccination as well as the responses to them among HIV-infected children need to be determined.

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