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Rotavirus Induces a Biphasic Enterotoxic and Cytotoxic Response in Human-Derived Intestinal Enterocytes, Which Is Inhibited by Human Immunoglobulins

Giulio De Marco, Ileana Bracale, Vittoria Buccigrossi, Eugenia Bruzzese, Roberto Berni Canani, Gaetano Polito, Franco Maria Ruggeri and Alfredo Guarino
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Vol. 200, No. 5 (Sep. 1, 2009), pp. 813-819
Published by: Oxford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40255069
Page Count: 7
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Rotavirus Induces a Biphasic Enterotoxic and Cytotoxic Response in Human-Derived Intestinal Enterocytes, Which Is Inhibited by Human Immunoglobulins
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Abstract

The mechanisms of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection in humans are not fully understood; no specific therapy is available, but orally administered human serum immunoglobulins are effective in blocking stool output. We aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus on ion transport and the role of NSP4 in human-derived enterocytes, and to test the efficacy of human serum immunoglobulin in a model of rotavirus infection. Soon after infection, rotavirus induces active chloride secretion in enterocytes. This effect is evident before viral replication leads to cell damage and correlates with NSP4 production. Inhibition of NSP4 prevents the early secretory phase but not cell damage. Incubation with human serum immunoglobulin blocks both ion secretion and cell damage. Rotavirus exerts an early NSP4-dependent ion secretion and subsequent tissue damage. The combined enterotoxic and cytotoxic effects may be responsible for the increased severity of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection, and both are counteracted by human serum immunoglobulin.

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