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O Universo: finito ou infinito?

Vitorino de Sousa Alves
Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia
T. 48, Fasc. 1, Filosofia da Natureza (Jan. - Mar., 1992), pp. 3-35
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40336026
Page Count: 33
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O Universo: finito ou infinito?
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Abstract

Neste artigo são analisados dois problemas: o cosmogónico da "génese" ou origem do Universo e o cosmológico da sua "estrutura" ou forma geométrica. O Universo teve um começo "estado original" ou não? E é finito ou infinito no Espaço--tempo? O artigo está dividido em duas partes na dupla perspectiva histórico-crítica: antiga e moderna. Os cosmólogos gregos (Platão, Aristóteles, etc) resolviam 1º problema do lô princípio do Cosmo (arché) pela dialéctica ou metafísica do ser e devir... E os matemáticos ensaiaram vários modelos geométricos para o Cosmo. É o novo modelo de Ptolomeu, de círculos e epiciclos que vai fascinar os mortais até à Idade Média. Só na Renascença é que Copérnico, Galileu, Keppler e Newton fundam a nova cosmologia científica. A cosmologia filosófica de Santo Agostinho, S. Tomás, etc. já resolvera o problema da "Criação". O sitema coperniciano foi ampliado e corrigido pelas novas descobertas de planetas, cometas e estrelas. Mas para além da nossa galáxia havia o enigma das Nebulosas... Hubble descobriu a lei da expansão das galáxias: $V = H_o D$. E surge a teoria do big bang (de Lemaôtre e Gamov): o Universo teve um começo ou ponto singular no espaço-tempo. Mas em 1950 Bondi, Golde, Hoyle reagem com a nova teoria do estado estacionário: o Universo não teve começo e nasce sempre matéria nova do "campo do nada". Também os matemáticos relativistas criaram novos modelos de Universo estáticos e evolucionistas que se fundam nas equações de campo (de Einstein) e nas métricas ds². Por exemplo, o Universo de Friedman é oscilante, o Universo de Lemaître é hiperelíptico e o Universo de Einstein-De Sitter é parabólico. O espaço-tempo é finito mas sem limites se é curvado (K>0) e é infinito se é aberto (K=0). O A. critica ainda as teses idealista (de Kant) e panteísta (de Hegel) e agnóstica (de St. Hawking). A sua solução é criacionista e sugere a nova forma geométrica do universo hiperespiral. /// En cet article sont analysés deux problèmes: le cosmogonique de Ia "genèse" ou origine de l'Univers et le cosmologique de sa structure ou forme géométrique. L'Univers a eu un commencement "état originei" ou non? Il est fini ou infini dans l'Espace-temps? L'article se divise en deux parties sous le double point de vue historico-critique: antique et moderne. Les cosmologues grecs (Platon, Aristote, etc.) résolvaient le problème du premier príncipe du Cosmos (archê) par Ia dialectique ou la métaphysique de l'être et du devenir... Et les mathématiciens essayaient plusieurs modles géométriques pour le Cosmos. C'est le nouveau modèle de Ptolomée, de cercles et épicycles, que va fasciner les mortels jusqu'au Moyen Age. Ce n'est qu'à Ia Renaissance que Copernic, Galilée, Kepler et Newton fondent Ia nouvelle cosmologie scientiílque. La cosmologie philosophique de S. Augustin, de S. Thomas, etc. avait déjà résolu le problème de Ia "création". Le système copernicien fut amplifié et corrigé par les nouvelles découvertes de planètes, de comètes et d'Étoiles. Mais au-delà de notre galaxie il y avait l'énigme des Nébuleuses... Hubble découvrit la loi d'expansion des galaxies: \[V = H_o D\]. Puis surgit Ia théorie du big bang (de Lemaître et Gamov): l'Univers a eu un commencement ou point singulier dans l'éspace-temps. Mais en 1950 Bondi, Golde, Hoyle réagissent avec la nouvelle théorie de Xétat stationnaire: l'Univers n'apas eu de commencement et il naît toujours de la matière nouvelle à partir du "champ du rien". Les mathématiciens rélativistes également créèrent de nouveaux modèles d'Univers statiques et évolutionnistes qui se fondent sur des équations de champ (d'Einstein) et sur les paramètres ds². Par exemple l'Univers de Friedmann est oscillatoire, l'Univers de Lemaître est hyper-elliptique et l'Univers de Einstein-De Sitter est parabolique. L'espace-temps est fini mais sans limites s'il est courbé (K>0) et est fini s'il est ouvert (K=0). L'auteur critique encore les thèses idéalistes (de Kant), panthéistes (de Hegel) et agnostique (St. Hawking). Sa solution est créationiste et suggere une nouvelle forme geometrique de l'Univers hyper-spiral. /// Two problems are under analysis in this paper: a cosmogonic one on the "genesis" or origin of the Universe; and a cosmologic one on its "structure" or geometric form. Has the Universe had a beginning, a "original state"? and is it finite or infinite in spacetime? This paper is divided into two parts, from a double historical-critical perspective: both ancient and modern. The greek cosmologists (Plato, Aristotle, etc.) solved the problem of the first principle of the Universe (arché) through the dialectic of being and becoming... The mathematicians, on the other hand, have put forward several geometric cosmological models, such as that of Ptolomy, with circles and epicycles, with fascinated everybody until the Middle Age. Only during the Renaissance have Copernic, Galileo, Keppler and Newton founded a new, scientific cosmology. In the meanwhile, the philosophical cosmology of St. Augustine, S. Thomas, etc., had already solved the problem of "Creation". The copernican system was developed and corrected due to the discovery of new planets, comets and stars. However, beyond our galaxy, a mystery remained, that ofthcNebulae... Hubble discovered that the law of expansion of galaxies: V = HD. Then the big bang theory was put forward (by Lemaître and Gamov): the Universe had a biginning in the form of a singularity in space-time. However, in 1950 Bondi, Golde and Hoyle formulated an alternative view, the steady state theory: the Universe had no biginning and new matter is being continuously created out of the "field of nothing". Relativist mathematicians have also proposed new both static and evolutionary models of the Universe, based both on Einstein's field equations and on ds² metrics. This Friedman's Universe is a. fluctuating one, Lemaitre's is hypereliptical, whereas Einstein-De Sitter's is parabolic. Should space-time be curved (K>0) it would then be fmite but without limits; should it be open (K < 0) it would then be infinite. The author criticizes both Kant's Idealist, Hegel's pantheistic and Steven Hawking's agnostic theses. He puts forward a creacionist solution, and suggests a new, hyperspiral form for the Universe.

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