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Expression and Characterization of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Mutants and their Effect on Glycogen Synthase Activity in Intact Cells
Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, Gretchen M. Argast, Orit Foord, Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 93, No. 19 (Sep. 17, 1996), pp. 10228-10233
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40367
Page Count: 6
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Glycogen, Cells, Enzymes, Phosphorylation, Physiological regulation, Cell free system, Cultured cells, Plasmids, Antibodies, Gene expression regulation
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In these studies we expressed and characterized wild-type (WT) GSK-3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) and its mutants, and examined their physiological effect on glycogen synthase activity. The GSK-3 mutants included mutation at serine-9 either to alanine (S9A) or glutamic acid (S9E) and an inactive mutant, K85,86MA. Expression of WT and the various mutants in a cell-free system indicated that S9A and S9E exhibit increased kinase activity as compared with WT. Subsequently, 293 cells were transiently transfected with WT GSK-3 and mutants. Cells expressing the S9A mutant exhibited higher kinase activity (2.6-fold of control cells) as compared with cells expressing WT and S9E (1.8- and 2.0-fold, respectively, of control cells). Combined, these results suggest serine-9 as a key regulatory site of GSK-3 inactivation, and indicate that glutamic acid cannot mimic the function of the phosphorylated residue. The GSK-3-expressing cell system enabled us to examine whether GSK-3 can induce changes in the endogenous glycogen synthase activity. A decrease in glycogen synthase activity (50%) was observed in cells expressing the S9A mutant. Similarly, glycogen synthase activity was suppressed in cells expressing WT and the S9E mutant (20-30%, respectively). These studies indicate that activation of GSK-3 is sufficient to inhibit glycogen synthase in intact cells, and provide evidence supporting a physiological role for GSK-3 in regulating glycogen synthase and glycogen metabolism.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 1996 National Academy of Sciences