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Journal Article

Globalizatión y culture

Gilberto Giménez
Estudios Sociológicos
Vol. 20, No. 58 (Jan. - Apr., 2002), pp. 23-46
Published by: El Colegio de Mexico
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40420704
Page Count: 24
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Globalizatión y culture
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Abstract

El discurso de la globalización de la cultura plantea, por lo general, dos tesis contrapuestas: la de la homogeneización tendencial de las expresiones culturales y la de su fragmentación calidoscópica. Ninguna de estas tesis ha encontrado una justificación teórica satisfactoria o un sustento empírico convincente. Una definición más rigurosa tanto de la cultura como de la globalización conduce a replantear este problema en términos de confrontación entre culturas particulares —consideradas en diferentes escalas—, e industrias culturales. En efecto, estas últimas son las únicas que pueden considerarse "globales" debido al carácter supraterritorial de su producción y de su circulación. Dentro de este marco, el artículo plantea varias tesis. El autor concluye que conviene deslindarse de cierta retórica hiperbólica que da por hecho la emergencia de una cultura global unificada. En todo caso, la globalización de las industrias culturales es una "globalización débil" comparada con la globalización económica. Incluso se puede afirmar que la expresión: "globalizatión de la cultura", resulta impropia y abusiva, ya que los bienes culturales industnalizados y comercializados no se difunden por el planeta de modo igualitario y general. /// The discourse of the globalization of culture considers, in general, two opposite thesis: on the one hand, the homogenizing tendency of cultural expressions and on the other its kaleidoscopic fragmentation. None of these thesis has found a theoretically satisfying justification or a convincing empirical support. A more rigorous definition both of culture and globalization leads to redefine this problem in terms of confrontation among specific cultures — considered in different scales— and cultural industries. In fact, these industries are the only ones which may be considered as "global" due to the supraterritorial character of its production and the circulation of the latter. Within this framework, the article sets out several thesis. The author concludes that it is convenient to distance oneself from a certain hyperbolic rhetoric, which takes for granted the emergence of a unified global culture. In any case, the globalization of cultural industries is "weak", compared to economic globalization. Indeed, "globalization of culture" might well be an improper and abusive expression, because the industrialized and commercialized cultural goods do not spread out through the planet in an egalitarian and general way.

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