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Tri-Split tRNA Is a Transfer RNA Made from 3 Transcripts That Provides Insight into the Evolution of Fragmented tRNAs in Archaea

Kosuke Fujishima, Junichi Sugahara, Kaoru Kikuta, Reiko Hirano, Asako Sato, Masaru Tomita, Akio Kanai and Dieter Söll
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 106, No. 8 (Feb. 24, 2009), pp. 2683-2687
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40421769
Page Count: 5
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Tri-Split tRNA Is a Transfer RNA Made from 3 Transcripts That Provides Insight into the Evolution of Fragmented tRNAs in Archaea
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Abstract

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is essential for decoding the genome sequence into proteins. In Archaea, previous studies have revealed unique multiple intron-containing tRNAs and tRNAs that are encoded on 2 separate genes, so-called split tRNAs. Here, we discovered 10 fragmented tRNA genes in the complete genome of the hyperthermoacidophilic Archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis that are individually transcribed and further trans-spliced to generate all of the missing tRNAs encoding glycine, alanine, and glutamate. Notably, the 3 mature ${\rm{tRNA}}^{{\rm{Gly}}} {\rm{'S}}$ with synonymous codons are created from 1 constitutive 3' half transcript and 4 alternatively switching transcripts, representing tRNA made from a total of 3 transcripts named a "tri-split tRNA." Expression and nucleotide sequences of 10 split tRNA genes and their joined tRNA products were experimentally verified. The intervening sequences of split tRNA have high identity to tRNA intron sequences located at the same positions in intron-containing tRNAs in related Thermoproteales species. This suggests that an evolutionary relationship between intron-containing and split tRNAs exists. Our findings demonstrate the first example of split tRNA genes in a free-living organism and a unique tri-split tRNA gene that provides further insight into the evolution of fragmented tRNAs.

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