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Laboratory studies were conducted to measure the relative volatility of triallate [S-(2,3,3-trichloroallyl) diisopropylthiocarbamate] from soils and to determine the effect of surfactants on triallate mobility. Significant volatilization occurred from continuously moist soils under constant air exposure but triallate did not volatilize more rapidly than herbicides which do not respond to incorporation. Volatilization rates from Ray silt soil fell in the order of propachlor (2-chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide) > triallate > alachlor [2-chloro-2′, 6′-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide] and from Drummer silty clay loam were propachlor > alachlor > triallate. In suspension studies soils reversibly adsorbed 93 to 98% of the triallate in aqueous solution. With soil at field moisture capacity, the concentration of triallate in soil solution was 13 ppbw without surfactant and 14 ppbw with 3 parts emulsifier blend to 1 part of triallate (w/w). With this level of emulsifier 92% of triallate applied to the soil surface remained in the upper 3 cm of soil following a 15.2-cm simulated rainfall. Without surfactant 99% remained in the upper 3 cm of soil. Lower triallate mobility in moist soils observed in this study coupled with the strong dependence of triallate bioactivity as reported by others strongly suggests that deactivation by dry surface soils rather than volatility is primarily responsible for the triallate response to incorporation.
Weed Science © 1976 Weed Science Society of America