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Elevated CO₂ Levels Affect Development, Motility, and Fertility and Extend Life Span in Caenorhabditis Elegans
Kfir Sharabi, Anat Hurwitz, Amos J. Simon, Greg J. Beitel, Richard I. Morimoto, Gideon Rechavi, Jacob I. Sznajder, Yosef Gruenbaum and Roger D. Kornberg
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 106, No. 10 (Mar. 10, 2009), pp. 4024-4029
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40428493
Page Count: 6
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Hypercapnia (high CO₂ levels) occurs in a number of lung diseases and it is associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). However, it is largely unknown how hypercapnia is sensed and responds in nonneuronal cells. Here, we used G elegans to study the response to nonanesthetic CO₂ levels and show that levels exceeding 9% induce aberrant motility that is accompanied by age-dependent deterioration of body muscle organization, slowed development, reduced fertility and increased life span. These effects occur independently of the IGF-R, dietary restriction, egg laying or mitochondrial-induced aging pathways. Transcriptional profiling analysis shows specific and dynamic changes in gene expression after 1, 6, or 72 h of exposure to 19% CO₂ including increased transcription of several 7-transmembrane domain and innate immunity genes and a reduction in transcription of many of the MSP genes. Together, these results suggest specific physiological and molecular responses to hypercapnia, which appear to be independent of early heat shock and HIF mediated pathways.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2009 National Academy of Sciences