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Goatweed seeds require light for germination, with optimum germination occurring at 25/20 or 30/25 C day/night temperatures. Germination was 8.5% 7 days after incubation at 20/15 C. At 15/10 C, no germination occurred, irrespective of the light treatment. Chilling at 4 C for 10 days prior to incubation at 30/25 C did not induce germination of dark-incubated seeds and had no effect on germination of light-incubated seeds. A photoperiod of at least 1 h daily was required to induce germination. Maximum germination, however, occurred with a 9-h photoperiod. Light intensity as low as 25 μE·m⁻²·s⁻¹ induced germination of goatweed seeds. Germination percentage increased with an increase in light intensity. Treatment with 1 mM gibberellic acid or 10 or 100 mM sodium nitrate or ammonium nitrate solution was effective in enhancing germination of light-incubated seeds, but not in inducing germination of dark-incubated seeds. Ammonium nitrate at 10 and 100 mM was more effective than sodium nitrate at the same concentrations in enhancing germination of goatweed seeds in the light. Ammonium chloride did not increase percent germination over that of seeds incubated in distilled water in the light. Germination percentage was maximum at pH 10 and at osmotic potentials 0.0 MPa.
Weed Science © 1989 Weed Science Society of America