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Bilirubin and Glutathione Have Complementary Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Roles
Thomas W. Sedlak, Masoumeh Saleh, Daniel S. Higginson, Bindu D. Paul, Krishna R. Juluri and Solomon H. Snyder
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 106, No. 13 (Mar. 31, 2009), pp. 5171-5176
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40455167
Page Count: 6
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Glutathione (GSH) and bilirubin are prominent endogenous antioxidant cytoprotectants. Despite tissue levels that are thousands of times lower than GSH, bilirubin is effective because of the biosynthetic cycle wherein it is generated from biliverdin by biliverdin reductase (BVR). When bilirubin acts as an antioxidant it is oxidized to biliverdin, which is immediately reduced by BVR to bilirubin. Why does the body employ both of these 2 distinct antioxidant systems? We show that the water-soluble GSH primarily protects water soluble proteins, whereas the lipophilic bilirubin protects lipids from oxidation. Mice with deletion of heme oxygenase-2, which generates biliverdin, display greater lipid than protein oxidation, while the reverse holds for GSH depletion. RNA interference depletion of BVR increases oxidation of lipids more than protein. Depletion of BVR or GSH augments cell death in an oxidant-specific fashion.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2009 National Academy of Sciences