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Inhibition of Serine/Threonine Phosphatase PP2A Enhances Cancer Chemotherapy by Blocking DNA Damage Induced Defense Mechanisms
Jie Lu, John S. Kovach, Francis Johnson, Jeffrey Chiang, Richard Hodes, Russell Lonser, Zhengping Zhuang and Roscoe O. Brady
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 106, No. 28 (Jul. 14, 2009), pp. 11697-11702
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40484013
Page Count: 6
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A variety of mechanisms maintain the integrity of the genome in the face of cell stress. Cancer cell response to chemotherapeutic and radiation-induced DNA damage is mediated by multiple defense mechanisms including polo-like kinase 1 (Plk-1), protein kinase B (Akt-1), and/or p53 pathways leading to either apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. Subsequently, a subpopulation of arrested viable cancer cells may remain and recur despite aggressive and repetitive therapy. Here, we show that modulation (activation of Akt-1 and Plk-1 and repression of p53) of these pathways simultaneously results in paradoxical enhancement of the effectiveness of cytotoxic chemotherapy. We demonstrate that a small molecule inhibitor, LB-1.2, of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activates Plk-1 and Akt-1 and decreases p53 abundance in tumor cells. Combined with temozolomide (TMZ; a DNA-methylating chemotherapeutic drug), LB-1.2 causes complete regression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) xenografts without recurrence in 50% of animals (up to 28 weeks) and complete inhibition of growth of neuroblastoma (NB) xenografts. Treatment with either drug alone results in only short-term inhibition/regression with all xenografts resuming rapid growth. Combined with another widely used anticancer drug, Doxorubicin (DOX, a DNA intercalating agent), LB-1.2 also causes marked GBM xenograft regression, whereas DOX alone only slows growth. Inhibition of PP2A by LB-1.2 blocks cell-cycle arrest and increases progression of cell cycle in the presence of TMZ or DOX. Pharmacologic inhibition of PP2A may be a general method for enhancing the effectiveness of cancer treatments that damage DNA or disrupt components of cell replication.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2009 National Academy of Sciences