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The N-End Rule Pathway Controls Multiple Functions during Arabidopsis Shoot and Leaf Development
Emmanuelle Graciet, Franziska Walter, Diarmuid Ó. Maoiléidigh, Stephan Pollmann, Elliot M. Meyerowitz, Alexander Varshavsky and Frank Wellmer
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 106, No. 32 (Aug. 11, 2009), pp. 13618-13623
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40485415
Page Count: 6
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Leaves, Plants, Auxins, Leaf development, Proteins, Journalism, Plant cells, Phenotypes, Seedlings, Genetics
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The ubiquitin-dependent N-end rule pathway relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. This proteolytic system is present in all organisms examined and has been shown to have a multitude of functions in animals and fungi. In plants, however, the functional understanding of the N-end rule pathway is only beginning. The N-end rule has a hierarchic structure. Destabilizing activity of N-terminal Asp, Glu, and (oxidized) Cys requires their conjugation to Arg by an arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase (R-transferase). The resulting N-terminal Arg is recognized by the pathway's E3 ubiquitin ligases, called "N-recognins." Here, we show that the Arabidopsis R-transferases AtATEl and AtATE2 regulate various aspects of leaf and shoot development. We also show that the previously identified N-recognin PROTEOLYSIS6 (PRT6) mediates these R-transferase-dependent activities. We further demonstrate that the arginylation branch of the N-end rule pathway plays a role in repressing the meristem-promoting BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) gene in developing leaves. BP expression is known to be excluded from Arabidopsis leaves by the activities of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) transcription factor complex and the phytohormone auxin. Our results suggest that AtATEl and AtATE2 act redundantly with AS1, but independently of auxin, in the control of leaf development.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2009 National Academy of Sciences