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A Novel Red Clover Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase Has Enzymatic Activities Consistent with a Role in Phaselic Acid Biosynthesis
Michael L. Sullivan
Vol. 150, No. 4 (Aug., 2009), pp. 1866-1879
Published by: American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB)
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40537902
Page Count: 14
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Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves accumulate several ju, mol g⁺¹ fresh weight of phaselic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-L-malate]. Postharvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forage crops like alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lack both polyphenol oxidase and o-diphenols, and breakdown of their protein upon harvest and storage results in economic losses and release of excess nitrogen into the environment. Understanding how red clover synthesizes o-diphenols such as phaselic acid will help in the development of forage crops utilizing this natural system of protein protection. A possible pathway for phaselic acid biosynthesis predicts a hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) capable of forming caffeoyl and/or p-coumaroyl esters with mala te. Genes encoding two distinct HCTs were identified in red clover. HCT1 shares more than 75% amino acid identity with a number of wellcharacterized shikimate O-HCTs implicated in monolignol biosynthesis. HCT2 shares only 34% amino acid sequence identity with HCT1 and has limited sequence identity to any previously identified HCT. Expression analyses indicate that HCT1 mRNA accumulates to 4-fold higher levels in stems than in leaves, whereas HCT2 mRNA accumulates to 10-fold higher levels in leaves than in stems. Activity assays of HCT1 and HCT2 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli indicate that HCT1 transfers caffeoyl or p-coumaroyl moieties from a coenzyme A-thiolester to shikimate but not malate, whereas HCT2 transfers caffeoyl or p-coumaroyl moieties from a coenzyme A-thiolester to malate but not shikimate. Together, these results indicate that HCT1 is involved in monolignol biosynthesis and HCT2 is a novel transferase likely involved in phaselic acid biosynthesis.
Plant Physiology © 2009 American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB)