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Journal Article

DNA-DNA Hybridization Evidence for Subfamily Structure among Hummingbirds

Robert Bleiweiss, John A. W. Kirsch and Juan Carlos Matheus
The Auk
Vol. 111, No. 1 (Jan., 1994), pp. 8-19
DOI: 10.2307/4088500
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4088500
Page Count: 12

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Topics: Hummingbirds, Hermit lifestyle, Phylogeny, Taxa, Hybridity, Birds, Matrices, Phylogenetics, DNA, Genera
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DNA-DNA Hybridization Evidence for Subfamily Structure among Hummingbirds
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Abstract

We used DNA-DNA hybridization to determine large-scale phylogenetic structure among hummingbirds (Trochilidae). Analyses of complete matrices of $\Delta T_{{\rm m}}$ and $\Delta T_{{\rm mode}}$ statistics among eight hummingbird genera and a swift generated the same fully resolved topology, which bootstrapping and jackknifing analyses supported at the 100% level. The data are consistent with monophyly for the traditional hermit (Phaethornithinae) and nonhermit (Trochilinae) subfamilies, and with placement of the hermitlike Tooth-billed Hummingbird (Androdon aequatorialis) and Green-fronted Lancebill (Doryfera ludoviciae) among trochilines. Among the trochilines examined, D. ludoviciae is more closely related to the Sparkling Violet-ear (Colibri coruscans) than to A. aequatorialis, and the Collared Inca (Coeligena torquata) is the sister group to these three. Among the hermits examined, the White-tipped Sicklebill (Eutoxeres aquila) represents the first branch, followed by the White-whiskered Hermit (Phaethornis yaruqui), and the closely related Bronzy Hermit (Glaucis aenea) and Bandtailed Barbthroat (Threnetes ruckeri). Evolutionary rate estimates from $\Delta T_{{\rm m}}$ trees corrected for nonadditivity indicate significant rate variation among lineages. Calibration of divergence times with the earliest-known fossil swift suggests that the diverse Andean radiation of trochilines is comprised of at least two lineages (C. torquata, D. ludoviciae/C. coruscans) whose origins date to a period of uplift during the mid-Miocene.

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