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Evolução do défice externo agrícola, particularmente no domínio alimentar, e suas causas

Edgar Rocha
Análise Social
Segunda Série, Vol. 15, No. 60 (1979), pp. 839-857
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41010320
Page Count: 19
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Evolução do défice externo agrícola, particularmente no domínio alimentar, e suas causas
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Abstract

Portugal foi até meados deste século um país basicamente agrícola, conhecido pelas exportações de produtos deste sector. No entanto, em período mais recente o comércio externo agrícola é deficitário e o abastecimento alimentar depende cada vez mais de importações, a ponto de se afirmar correntemente que o país « importa metade do que come ». Neste artigo estuda-se a evolução do comércio externo agrícola, em particular o alimentar, concluindo-se quanto a este último que a nossa dependência externa, se bem que tenha vindo a crescer muito rápidamente nos últimos anos, é substancialmente inferior a 50 %. Apontam-se, em seguida, as causas mais prováveis da estagnação agrícola que está na base do crescente défice comercial agrícola, discutindo-se ainda a hipótese de que o investimento líquido nao tenha sido suficiente para substituir a mão-de-obra agrícola absorvida pela emigração e ainda proporcionar substancial aumento da produção. Portugal a été, jusqu'à la moitié de ce siècle, un pays essentiellement agricole, connu d'après ses exportations de produits de ce secteur. Cependant, dans une période plus récente, le commerce extérieur agricole est déficitaire et l'approvisionnement alimentaire dépend toujours plus des importations, de telle façon qu'on affirme courament que le pays « importe la moitié de ce qu'il mange ». Dans cet article, on étudie l'évolution du commerce extérieur agricole, en spécial celui de l'alimentation, et on arrive à la conclusion, concernant celui-ci, que notre dépendance extérieure, quoiqu'elle ait crû très vite dans les dernières années, est considérablement inférieur à 50 %. On signale ensuite les causes les plus probables de la stagnation agricole qui est à la base du croissant déficit commercial agricole, en discutant aussi l'hypothèse que l'investissement liquide n'ait été suffisant pour remplacer la main-d'oeuvre agricole absorbée par l'émigration et aussi pour permettre un acroissement substantiel de la production. Till the middle of this century, Portugal was known basically as an exporter in this field. Nevertheless, in a more recent period the agricultural external trade has registered a deficit and the supplying of food is more and more dependent on imports, to such an extent that one says usually that the country « imports half the food it eats » . In this article one studies the evolution of the agricultural external trade, in special concerning food, and one concludes, as far as this is concerned, that our external dependence, though it may have grown very quickly in the last years, is considerably inferior to 50 %. After one indicates the most probable causes for the agricultural stagnation that underlies the rising deficit in agricultural trade and one also discusses the hypothesis that the liquid investment may not be sufficient to replace the agricultural manpower absorbed by emigration and yet to make possible a substantial rise in production.

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