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Liminaridade e metamorfose: uma reflexão antropológica sobre uma desordem psiquiátrica

Luís Quintais
Análise Social
Vol. 34, No. 153, LISBOA: CIDADE DE MARGENS (Primavera de 2000), pp. 985-1005
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41011405
Page Count: 21
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Liminaridade e metamorfose: uma reflexão antropológica sobre uma desordem psiquiátrica
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Abstract

Este ensaio assenta sobre o conceito clássico de «liminaridade» à luz de urna redefinição turneriana. Liminaridade — qualidade do que está na ombreira — comporta dois universos de sentido, que se articulam: o de «transformação ontológica» e o de invisibilidade estrutural». Aplicando o conceito a trabalho etnográfico realizado no Hospital Júlio de Matos, o autor aborda a transformação ontológica enquanto metamorfose. De seguida, analisa a passagem da invisibilidade à visibilidade estrutural. Os sujeitos do estudo, que se encontravam na penumbra social, acedem através de um idioma culturalmente específico a espaços iluminados. Assim, passam a poder definir com acuidade classificatória o seu lugar no mundo. Cet essai s'étaye sur le concept classique de «liminarité» à la lumière d'une redéfinition turnérienne. La liminarité — qualité de ce qui est au seuil de quelque chose — comporte deux champs de signification articulés entre eux: celui de la «transformation ontologique» et celui de l'«invisibilité structurelle». En appliquant le concept à une enquête ethnologique réalisée à l'Hôpital Júlio de Matos, l'auteur aborde la transformation ontologique en tant que métamorphose. Il analyse ensuite le passage de l'invisibilité à la visibilité structurelle. Les sujets de l'étude, qui se trouvaient dans la pénombre de la société, accèdent à des espaces lumineux grâce à un idiome culturellement spécifique. Ainsi, gagnent-ils le pouvoir de définir leur place dans le monde avec une acuité classificatoire. This article rests on the classic concept of «threshold», viewed in light of a turnerian redefinition. «Threshold» — seen as a quality of that which is about to commence, or enter («at the threshold», as it were) — has two spheres of meaning: «ontological transformation» and «structural invisibility». Applying the concept to ethnographical work carried out at the Julio de Matos Hospital, the author approaches the ontological transformation as a metamorphosis. He then goes on to analyse the progression from structural invisibility to structural visibility. The study's subjects, hitherto in a shadowy social margin, succeed in reaching illuminated spaces through a culturally specific language. Thus, they begin to be capable of defining, and accurately classifying, their place in the world.

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