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Pollination of Australian Macrozamia Cycads (Zamiaceae): Effectiveness and Behavior of Specialist Vectors in a Dependent Mutualism
L. Irene Terry, Gimme H. Walter, John S. Donaldson, Elizabeth Snow, Paul I. Forster and Peter J. Machin
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 92, No. 6 (Jun., 2005), pp. 931-940
Published by: Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4126069
Page Count: 10
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Ovules, Pollen, Female animals, Insect pollination, Pollination, Weevils, Pollinating insects, Seed set, Dyes, Mutualism
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Complementary field and laboratory tests confirmed and quantified the pollination abilities of Tranes sp. weevils and Cycadothrips chadwicki thrips, specialist insects of their respective cycad hosts, Macrozamia machinii and M. lucida. No agamospermous seeds were produced when both wind and insects were excluded from female cones; and the exclusion of wind-vectored pollen alone did not eliminate seed set, because insects were able to reach the cone. Based on enclosure pollination tests, each weevil pollinates an average 26.2 ovules per cone and each thrips 2.4 ovules per cone. These pollinators visited similar numbers of ovules per cone in fluorescent dye tests that traced insect movement through cones. Fluorescent dye granules deposited by Cycadothrips were concentrated around the micropyle of each visited ovule, the site of pollen droplet release, where pollen must be deposited to achieve pollination. In contrast, Tranes weevils left dye scattered on different areas of each visited ovule, indicating that chance plays a greater role in this system. Each weevil and 25 thrips delivered 6.2 and 5.2 pollen grains, respectively, on average, to each visited ovule per cone, based on examination of dissected pollen canals. In sum, the pollination potential of 25 Cycadothrips approximates that of one Tranes weevil.
American Journal of Botany © 2005 Botanical Society of America, Inc.