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Impact of rubble mound groyne structural interventions in restoration of Koggala lagoon, Sri Lanka; numerical modelling approach

Gayan Lakendra Gunaratne, Norio Tanaka, G. P. Amarasekara, Tilak Priyadarshana and Jagath Manatunge
Journal of Coastal Conservation
Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 2011), pp. 113-121
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41506506
Page Count: 9
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Impact of rubble mound groyne structural interventions in restoration of Koggala lagoon, Sri Lanka; numerical modelling approach
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Abstract

Physical processes of the lagoon are influenced by structural interventions. Understanding the complex reality of physical processes sometimes difficult with field observations thus a model provides a simplified abstract view. Two dimensional hydrodynamic model is used to describe, restoration efforts to Koggala lagoon, a combined freshwater and estuarine complex of rich ecosystem on the southern coast of Sri Lanka. The lagoon mouth was naturally closed by a sand bar which controlled the seawater intrusion. Due to large-scale sand removal at lagoon mouth, formation of the sandbar shifted towards the lagoon. After the removal of natural sand barrier, rubble mound groyne structures were built to avoid sand deposition in the lagoon and to protect the highway bridge from the sea wave attack. Construction of the groyne resulted in the lagoon mouth being permanently open which in turn led to many environmental problems with saline intrusion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current situation of the lagoon and propose alternative structural interventions for minimization of seawater intrusion and subsequently improve lagoon ecosystem. Hydrological parameters were investigated and mathematical models for hydrodynamic behavior of the lagoon were applied in order to describe the lagoon physical processes and flow characteristics. Existing rubble mound structures were redesigned in order to minimize the seawater intrusion. Numerical simulations were carried out for two different mouth widths (40 m and 20 m) with appropriate structural interventions. Existing salting factor for the lagoon is 0.68 and numerical simulation results showed salting factor for 40 m and 20 m openings are 0.61 and 0.54 respectively. This shows the mouth width can be reduced up to 20 m in order to obtain a slating factor close to 0.5, which indicates the predominant influence of fresh water which in turn leads lagoon to a fresh water ecosystem.

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